Clay


Clay
/klay/, n.
1. Bertha M. (Charlotte Monica Braeme), 1836-84, English author: originator of a long series of romantic novels.
2. Cassius Marcellus, 1810-1903, U.S. antislavery leader and diplomat.
3. Cassius Marcellus, Jr., original name of Muhammad Ali.
4. Henry, 1777-1852, U.S. statesman and orator.
5. Lucius (DuBignon) /dooh'bin yon"/, 1897-1978, U.S. general.
6. a male given name.

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I
Soil particles with diameters less than 0.

005 mm; also a material composed essentially of clay particles (see clay mineral). In soils, clays provide the environment for almost all plant growth. The use of clay in pottery making predates recorded human history. As building materials, clay bricks (baked and as adobe) have been used in construction since earliest times. Kaolin, or china clay, is required for the finer grades of ceramic materials; used for paper coating and filler, it gives the paper a gloss, permitting high-quality reproduction, and increases paper opacity. Clay materials have many uses in engineering; earth dams are made impermeable to water by a core of clay, and water loss in canals may be reduced by lining the bottom with clay (called puddling). The essential raw materials of portland cement include clays.
II
(as used in expressions)
Cassius Marcellus Clay
Clay Cassius Marcellus
Clay Henry
Clay Lucius DuBignon
Frick Henry Clay

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      soil particles the diameters of which are less than 0.005 millimetre; also a rock that is composed essentially of clay particles. Rock in this sense includes soils, ceramic clays, clay shales, mudstones, glacial clays (including great volumes of detrital and transported clays), and deep-sea clays (red clay, blue clay, and blue mud). These are all characterized by the presence of one or more clay minerals, together with varying amounts of organic and detrital materials, among which quartz is predominant. Clay materials are plastic when wet, and coherent when dry. Most clays are the result of weathering.

      No other earth material has so wide an importance or such extended uses as do the clays. They are used in a wide variety of industries. As soils, they provide the environment for almost all plant growth and hence for nearly all life on the Earth's surface. They provide porosity, aeration, and water retention and are a reservoir of potassium oxide, calcium oxide, and even nitrogen.

      The use of clay in pottery making antedates recorded human history, and pottery remains provide a record of past civilizations. As building materials, bricks (baked and as adobe) have been used in construction since earliest time. Impure clays may be used to make bricks, tile, and the cruder types of pottery, while kaolin (q.v.), or china clay, is required for the finer grades of ceramic materials. Another major use of kaolin is as paper coating and filler; it gives the paper a gloss and increases the opacity. Refractory materials, including fire brick, chemical ware, and melting pots for glass, also make use of kaolin together with other materials that increase resistance to heat. Certain clays known as fuller's earth have long been used in wool scouring. In rubber compounding, the addition of clay increases resistance to wear and helps eliminate molding troubles.

      Clay materials have a wide variety of uses in engineering. Earth dams are made impermeable to water by adding suitable clay materials to porous soil; water loss in canals may be reduced by adding clay. The essential raw materials of portland cement are limestone and clays, commonly impure. After acid treatment, clays have been used as water softeners; the clay removes calcium and magnesium from the solution and substitutes sodium. A major use of clay is as drilling mud—i.e., heavy suspension consisting of chemical additives and weighting materials, along with clays, employed in rotary drilling.

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Universalium. 2010.

Synonyms:
(consisting principally of alumina and silica) / (of man, as perishable), , , ,


Look at other dictionaries:

  • Clay — bezeichnet: Clay Mathematics Institute, ein Mathematikinstitut Clay Research Award, ein Mathematikpreis Clay (Industrieplastilin), einen Werkstoff für den Modellbau Orte in den Vereinigten Staaten: Clay (Alabama) Clay (Arkansas) Clay… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Clay — (kl[=a]), n. [AS. cl[=ae]g; akin to LG. klei, D. klei, and perh. to AS. cl[=a]m clay, L. glus, gluten glue, Gr. gloio s glutinous substance, E. glue. Cf. {Clog}.] 1. A soft earth, which is plastic, or may be molded with the hands, consisting of… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Clay — puede referirse a: Lugares: Clay, lugar designado por el censo ubicado en el condado de Jefferson en el estado estadounidense de Alabama. Clay, lugar designado por el censo ubicado en el condado de Sacramento en el estado estadounidense de… …   Wikipedia Español

  • clay — clay; clay·den; clay·ey; clay·i·ness; clay·ish; clay·man; clay·more; clay·o·quot; clay·ton; clay·to·nia; clay·ver grass; clay·ey·ness; …   English syllables

  • Clay — Clay, AL U.S. Census Designated Place in Alabama Population (2000): 4947 Housing Units (2000): 1683 Land area (2000): 10.311680 sq. miles (26.707128 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.033070 sq. miles (0.085652 sq. km) Total area (2000): 10.344750 sq.… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Clay — Clay, Cassius Clay, Henry * * * (as used in expressions) Cassius (Marcellus) Clay Clay, Cassius Marcellus Clay, Henry Clay, Lucius D(uBignon) Frick, Henry Clay …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • CLAY (H.) — CLAY HENRY (1777 1852) Né en Virginie dans une famille de la petite bourgeoisie, Henry Clay devient avocat à vingt ans. Il s’établit au Kentucky où il mène une carrière professionnelle pleine de succès et une carrière politique au cours de… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • clay — O.E. clæg stiff, sticky earth; clay, from W.Gmc. *klaijaz (Cf. O.H.G. kliwa bran, Ger. Kleie, O.Fris. klai clay, O.S. klei, M.Du. clei, Dan. klæg; O.E. clæman, O.N. kleima, O.H.G. kleiman …   Etymology dictionary

  • clay|ey — «KLAY ee», adjective, clay|i|er, clay|i|est. 1. of or like clay. 2. covered or smeared with clay …   Useful english dictionary

  • Clay — Clay, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Clayed}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Claying}.] 1. To cover or manure with clay. [1913 Webster] 2. To clarify by filtering through clay, as sugar. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Clay —   [kleɪ],    1) Cassius, amerikanischer Boxer, Muhammad Ali.    2) Henry, amerikanischer Politiker, * Hanover County (Virginia) 12. 4. 1777, ✝ Washington (D. C.) 29. 6. 1852; Jurist, spielte als Kongressabgeordneter (1811 14, 1815 21, 1823 25),… …   Universal-Lexikon


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