ciliate


ciliate
ciliately, adv.ciliation, n.
/sil"ee it, -ayt'/, Biol.
n.
1. Also called ciliophoran /sil'ee of"euhr euhn/. any protozoan of the phylum Ciliophora (or in some classification schemes, class Ciliata), as those of the genera Paramecium, Tetrahymena, Stentor, and Vorticella, having cilia on part or all of the surface.
adj.
2. Also, ciliated /sil"ee ay'tid/. having cilia.
3. belonging or pertaining to the phylum Ciliophora.
[1785-95; < NL ciliatus, equiv. to cili(a) CILIA + -atus -ATE1]

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or  ciliophoran 

      any member of the protozoan phylum Ciliophora, of which there are some 8,000 species; ciliates (cilium) are generally considered the most evolved and complex of protozoans. Ciliates are single-celled organisms that, at some stage in their life cycle, possess cilia, short hairlike organelles used for locomotion and food gathering.

      The cilia are usually arranged in rows, known as kineties, on the pellicle (cell covering), but they may fuse together near the cytostome (cell mouth) of some species to form membranelles or undulating membranes (various sheetlike or fan-shaped groupings of cilia); elsewhere on the pellicle, cilia may form limblike tufts called cirri. Most ciliates have a flexible pellicle and contractile vacuoles, and many contain toxicysts or other trichocysts, small organelles with thread- or thorn-like structures that can be discharged for anchorage, for defense, or for capturing prey.

      Ciliates have one or more macronuclei (macronucleus) and from one to several micronuclei. The macronuclei control metabolic and developmental functions; the micronuclei are necessary for reproduction.

      Reproduction is typically asexual, although sexual exchange occurs as well. Asexual replication is usually by transverse binary fission or by budding (q.v.). Sexual phenomena include conjugation (genetic exchange between individuals) and autogamy (nuclear reorganization within an individual). Sexual reproduction does not always result in an immediate increase in numbers; however, conjugation is often followed by binary fission.

      Although most ciliates are free-living and aquatic, such as the Paramecium (q.v.), many are ectocommensals, dwelling harmlessly on the gills or integument of invertebrates, and some, such as the dysentery-causing Balantidium (q.v.), are parasitic. For information on representative ciliates, see peritrich; spirotrich; suctorian.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Ciliate — Cil i*ate, Ciliated Cil i*a ted, a. Provided with, or surrounded by, cilia; as, a ciliate leaf; endowed with vibratory motion; as, the ciliated epithelium of the windpipe. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • ciliate — [sil′ēāt΄idsil′ēit, sil′ēāt΄] adj. [ModL < L: see CILIA] Bot. Zool. having cilia: usually ciliated [sil′ēāt΄id] n. any of a phylum (Ciliophora) of microscopic protozoans characterized by cilia covering the body in whole or in part at some… …   English World dictionary

  • Ciliate — For the type of leaf margin, see Leaf#Margins (edge). Ciliated Cells Temporal range: Ediacaran Recent …   Wikipedia

  • ciliate — cil·i·ate sil ē ət, ē .āt n any of the phylum Ciliophora of ciliate protozoans * * * cil·i·ate (silґe āt) 1. having cilia. 2. any protozoan of the phylum Ciliophora; a ciliophoran …   Medical dictionary

  • ciliate — noun Date: 1916 any of a phylum or subphylum (Ciliophora) of ciliated protozoans (as paramecia) …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • ciliate — ciliated …   Dictionary of ichthyology

  • ciliate — adj. [L. cilium, eyelid] Provided with cilia; edged with parallel hairs; fringed; having minute hairs …   Dictionary of invertebrate zoology

  • ciliate — 1. adjective a) Ciliated. b) Of or pertaining to the eyelash. 2. noun Any of many protozoa, of the class Ciliata, that have many cilia …   Wiktionary

  • ciliate — Synonyms and related words: bristly, bushy, cirrose, fleecy, flocculent, furry, fuzzy, hairy, hirsute, hispid, lanate, matted, pilose, pubescent, shagged, shaggy, unshorn, woolly …   Moby Thesaurus

  • ciliate — adj. having tiny hairlike parts n. organism that belongs to the Ciliata group (Zoology) …   English contemporary dictionary


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