Chinook


Chinook
/shi nook", -noohk", chi-/, n., pl. Chinooks, (esp. collectively) Chinook.
1. a member of a formerly numerous North American Indian people originally inhabiting the northern shore of the mouth of the Columbia River and the adjacent territory.
2. either of the two languages of the Chinook Indians. Cf. Lower Chinook, Upper Chinook.
3. (l.c.) a warm, dry wind that blows at intervals down the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains.
4. (l.c.) See chinook salmon.
5. a U.S. Army cargo helicopter in service since 1962 and capable of ferrying 12 tons of supplies and troops.

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Northwest Coast Indian people of Washington and Oregon, U.S. At the time of first contact, the Chinook
who were in fact composed of several smaller groups, including the Lower Chinook, the Clatsop, the Clackamas, and the Wasco
lived along the lower Columbia River and spoke Chinookan languages.

They were famous as traders, with connections stretching as far as the Great Plains. They traded dried salmon, canoes, shells, and slaves. Chinook Jargon, the trade language of the Northwest Coast, was a combination of Chinook with Nootka and other Indian, English, and French terms. The Chinook were first described by the explorers Lewis and Clark, who encountered them in 1805. The basic social unit was the clan. Chinook religion focused on salmon rites and guardian spirits, and the potlatch was an important social ceremony. Following a smallpox epidemic in the early 19th century that brought about the collapse of Chinook culture, most of the remaining Chinook were absorbed into other Northwest Coast groups and many were removed to reservations. Only some 600 individuals claimed sole Chinook descent in the 2000 U.S. census. In 2001 the Chinook gained federal recognition of tribal status.

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people
      North American Indians of the Northwest Coast (Northwest Coast Indian) who spoke Chinookan languages and traditionally lived in what are now Washington and Oregon, from the mouth of the Columbia River to The Dalles.

      The Chinook were famous as traders, with connections stretching as far as the Great Plains. The Columbia was a major indigenous thoroughfare, and the Chinooks' location facilitated contact with northern and southern coastal peoples as well as with interior groups. The river was a rich source of salmon, the basis of the regional economy, and many groups traded with the Chinook for dried fish. Other important trade items were slaves from California, Nuu-chah-nulth (Nootka) canoes, and dentalium shells, which were highly valued as hair and clothing ornaments. Chinook Jargon, the trade language of the Northwest Coast, was a combination of Chinook with Nuu-chah-nulth and other Native American, English, and French terms. Chinook Jargon may have originated before European contact. It was used across a very broad territory reaching from California to Alaska.

      The Chinook were first described ethnographically by the American explorers Lewis and Clark (Lewis and Clark Expedition) in 1805. Because American colonialism severely disrupted Chinook culture, ultimately removing the people to reservations, most information about traditional Chinook life is based on the records of these and other traders and explorers, together with what is known of neighbouring groups.

      The tribe's basic social unit was probably a local group consisting of close relatives and headed by a senior member. Traditional Chinook religion focused on the first-salmon rite, a ritual in which each group welcomed the annual salmon run. Another important ritual was the individual vision quest, an ordeal undertaken by all male and some female adolescents to acquire a guardian spirit that would give them hunting, curing, or other powers, bring them good luck, or teach them songs and dances. Singing ceremonies were public demonstrations of these gifts. The Chinook also had potlatches (potlatch), which were ceremonial distributions of property.

      Early 21st-century population estimates indicated more than 1,500 Chinook descendants.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chinook — (  /ʃɪˈn …   Wikipedia

  • CHINOOK — Indiens de la côte pacifique nord ouest de l’Amérique du Nord, les Chinook vivaient sur le cours inférieur de la rivière Columbia, depuis l’embouchure jusqu’à The Dalles, dans l’Oregon et autour de la baie de Willapa. Grâce à cette situation… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Chinook — [shə nook′, shəno͞ok′; chənook′, chə no͞ok′] n. pl. Chinooks or Chinook [< tsi núk, a Salish name for the Chinook tribe] 1. a member of a North American Indian people of the Columbia River valley and adjacent regions 2. either of two languages …   English World dictionary

  • Chinook — Chinook, MT U.S. city in Montana Population (2000): 1386 Housing Units (2000): 732 Land area (2000): 0.514623 sq. miles (1.332868 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.514623 sq. miles (1.332868 sq.… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • chinook — s.n. Vânt cald şi uscat care coboară dinspre Munţii Stâncoşi spre preria nord americană. [pron. şi núc. / < engl. chinook < cuv. indian]. Trimis de LauraGellner, 08.12.2004. Sursa: DN  CHINOOK I NÚC/ s. n. vânt cald şi uscat care coboară… …   Dicționar Român

  • Chinook, MT — U.S. city in Montana Population (2000): 1386 Housing Units (2000): 732 Land area (2000): 0.514623 sq. miles (1.332868 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.514623 sq. miles (1.332868 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Chinook, WA — U.S. Census Designated Place in Washington Population (2000): 457 Housing Units (2000): 263 Land area (2000): 1.022784 sq. miles (2.648997 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.022784 sq. miles… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Chinook — name for a group of related native people in the Columbia River region of Washington and Oregon, from Salishan /ДЌinuk/, name of a village site. Name also extended to a type of salmon (1851) and warm spring wind. Chinook jargon was a mish mash of …   Etymology dictionary

  • Chinook — Chi*nook , n. 1. (Ethnol.) One of a tribe of North American Indians now living in the state of Washington, noted for the custom of flattening their skulls. Chinooks also called {Flathead Indians}. [1913 Webster] 2. A warm westerly wind from the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Chinook [1] — Chinook (spr. tschinúk), ein warmer, trockner westlicher Wind, der auf der Ostseite des Felsengebirges (besonders zwischen 50 und 55° nördl. Br.) auftritt und mehrere Tage dauern kann. Vor seinem Auftreten zeigt sich eine Bank von Kumuluswolken… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Chinook [2] — Chinook (spr. tschinúk), Indianerstamm, s. Tschinuk …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon


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