- checks and balances
limits imposed on all branches of a government by vesting in each branch the right to amend or void those acts of another that fall within its purview.[1780-90]
* * *Principle of government under which separate branches are empowered to prevent actions by other branches and are induced to share power.Checks and balances are applied primarily in constitutional governments. They are of fundamental importance in tripartite governments, such as that of the U.S., that separate powers among legislative, executive, and judicial departments. Checks and balances, which modify the separation of powers, may operate under parliamentary systems through exercise of a parliament's prerogative to adopt a no-confidence vote against a government; the government, or cabinet, in turn, ordinarily may dissolve the parliament. In one-party political systems, informal checks and balances may operate when organs of an authoritarian or totalitarian regime compete for power. See also Federalist papers; judicial review; separation of powers.
* * *principle of government under which separate branches are empowered to prevent actions by other branches and are induced to share power. Checks and balances are applied primarily in constitutional governments. They are of fundamental importance in tripartite governments, such as that of the United States, which separate powers among legislative, executive, and judicial branches.The Greek historian Polybius analyzed the ancient Roman mixed constitution under three main divisions: monarchy (represented by the consul); aristocracy (the Senate); and democracy (the people). He greatly influenced later ideas about the separation of powers.Checks and balances, which modify the separation of powers, may operate under parliamentary systems through exercise of a parliament's prerogative to adopt a no-confidence vote in a government; the government, or cabinet, in turn, ordinarily may dissolve the parliament. The British Parliament is supreme, and laws passed by it are not subject to review by the courts for constitutionality. In France, under the Fifth Republic (1958), a Constitutional Council of nine members (appointed for nine years by the president, Senate, and National Assembly) reviews the constitutionality of legislation. The Federal Republic of Germany combines features of parliamentary systems and of federal systems like that of the United States. It vests the right to declare a law unconstitutional in the Federal Constitutional Court (1951).The framers of the U.S. Constitution (Constitution of the United States of America), who were influenced by Montesquieu and William Blackstone among others, saw checks and balances as essential for the security of liberty under the Constitution: “It is by balancing each of these powers against the other two, that the efforts in human nature toward tyranny can alone be checked and restrained, and any degree of freedom preserved in the constitution” (John Adams). Though not expressly covered in the text of the Constitution, judicial review—the power of the courts to examine the actions of the legislative and the executive and administrative arms of government to ensure that they are constitutional—became an important part of government in the United States. Other checks and balances include the presidential veto of legislation (which Congress may override by a two-thirds vote) and executive and judicial impeachment by Congress. Only Congress can appropriate funds, and each house serves as a check on possible abuses of power or unwise action by the other. Congress, by initiating constitutional amendments, can in practice reverse decisions of the Supreme Court. The president appoints the members of the Supreme Court but only with the consent of the Senate, which also approves certain other executive appointments. The Senate also must approve treaties.From 1932 the U.S. Congress exercised a so-called legislative veto. Clauses in certain laws qualified the authority of the executive branch to act by making specified acts subject to disapproval by the majority vote of one or both houses. In 1983, in a case concerning the deportation of an alien, the U.S. Supreme Court held that legislative vetoes were unconstitutional (the House of Representatives had overturned the Justice Department's suspension of the alien's deportation). The decision affected clauses in some 200 laws covering a wide range of subjects, including presidential war powers, foreign aid and arms sales, environmental protection, consumer interests, and others. Despite the court's decision, Congress continued to exercise this power, including the legislative veto in at least 11 of the bills it passed in 1984 alone.Checks and balances that evolved from custom and Constitutional conventions include the congressional committee system and investigative powers, the role of political parties, and presidential influence in initiating legislation.In one-party political systems, informal, and perhaps even illegal, checks and balances may operate when organs of an authoritarian or totalitarian regime compete for power.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
Checks and Balances — ist eine Bezeichnung für die gegenseitige Kontrolle (englisch checks) von Verfassungsorganen eines Staates, zur Herstellung eines dem Erfolg des Ganzen förderlichen Systems partieller Gleichgewichte (engl. balances), zunächst im Wesentlichen … Deutsch Wikipedia
checks and balances — ► GOVERNMENT rules intended to prevent one person or group from having too much power within a country or an organization: »A system of checks and balances exists to ensure that our government is truly democratic. »Many executives amassed… … Financial and business terms
checks and balances — checks and bal·anc·es / ba lən səz/ n pl: the powers (as judicial review, the presidential veto, and the congressional override) conferred on each of the three branches of government by which each restrains the others from exerting too much power … Law dictionary
checks and balances — noun plural a political system in which no single part of a government can become too powerful, because it needs the agreement of the other parts for its actions to be legal a. a system that limits power within a group or organization … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English
checks and balances — (izg. čȅk end bèlensiz) DEFINICIJA pol. publ. mehanizmi kočenja i ravnoteže koji u demokratskom društvu čuvaju i reguliraju dužnu odgovornost izvršne vlasti (vlade, predsjednika države) prema zakonodavnoj (parlament) ETIMOLOGIJA engl … Hrvatski jezični portal
Checks and balances — Die Artikel Gewaltenteilung und Checks and Balances überschneiden sich thematisch. Hilf mit, die Artikel besser voneinander abzugrenzen oder zu vereinigen. Beteilige dich dazu an der Diskussion über diese Überschneidungen. Bitte entferne diesen… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Checks And Balances — The various procedures set in place to reduce mistakes or improper behavior. Checks and balances usually ensure that no one person or department has absolute control over decisions, and clearly defines the assigned duties. The existence of checks … Investment dictionary
Checks and balances — Séparation des pouvoirs La séparation des pouvoirs est un principe de répartition des différentes fonctions de l État, qui sont confiées à différentes composantes de ce dernier. On retient le plus souvent la classification de Montesquieu, appelée … Wikipédia en Français
checks and balances — rules intended to prevent one person or group from having too much power within an organization. A system of checks and balances exists to ensure that our government is truly democratic … New idioms dictionary
checks and balances — stabdžių ir atsvarų sistema statusas T sritis Politika apibrėžtis Valdžių atskyrimo principu grindžiama skirtingų valdžios institucijų sąveikos sistema, kurioje nė viena institucija pagal savo kompetenciją neturi absoliučių galių, tačiau… … Politikos mokslų enciklopedinis žodynas