Charleroi


Charleroi
/shannrdd leuh rddwann"/, n.
a city in S Belgium. 21,700.
Also Charleroy.

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City (pop., 2000 est.: 200,800), southwestern Belgium.

Following the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659), in which Spain was ceded French territory, Spain in 1666 decreed that a new fortress, named for Charles II of Spain, be built there, at the site of a medieval village. It was strategically important in the 17th–19th centuries and was held variously by France, Spain, Austria, and Holland. Though the fortress was dismantled in the late 19th century, the area retained its strategic importance; it was the scene of one of the first battles of World War I.

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      municipality, Walloon Region, south-central Belgium, on the north bank of the Sambre River, south of Brussels.

      Following the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659), France had to yield Landrecies, Avesnes, Philippeville, and Mariembourg to Spain. The frontier was dismantled, and with the return of peace and the marriage of Louis XIV to the Spanish Infanta, Spain determined to build a new fortress on the Sambre. This was to be Charleroi and the decree creating it was signed by the governor, Castel Rodrigo, in 1666. The site chosen for the new fortress was the medieval village of Charnoy and the name honoured Charles II, king of Spain. The very next year Louis XIV became master of Charleroi. It was returned to Spain in 1678, and once again fell to the French in 1693 after a siege directed by Sébastien de Vauban (Vauban, Sébastien Le Prestre de). Recovered by the Spanish in 1697, again French in 1701, the city was Austrian from 1713 to 1746. Napoleon headquartered in Charleroi in 1815 but was forced to retreat in a short time—regretting that he had not fortified the city. The Dutch did so as a barrier against France in 1816. Belgian after 1830, the fortress was dismantled between 1868 and 1871. Charleroi was the scene of the first battle of World War I (Aug. 22, 1914).

      Canalization of the Sambre in the 19th century brought great expansion, and Charleroi became the hub of a heavily populated industrial region, le pays noir (“the black country,” because of its smoke). Jumet, a northern suburb of Charleroi, was world famous for its glassmakers in the 19th century and sent some to the United States, where a similar and later competing industry was founded. Charleroi also became known as a centre for coal mining and the iron, steel, and engineering industries. Later, its manufacturers produced such goods as machinery, electronic equipment, and cement. The Charleroi area suffered from the effects of deindustrialization in the post-World War II era, and the city faced a significant unemployment problem. Economic troubles were somewhat alleviated, however, by the establishment of aeronautic, computer graphics, and petrochemical industries.

      Notable landmarks include the town hall (1936) with its 230-ft (70-m) belfry, from which the annual procession of the Walloon Festival sets out, the Palais des Expositions (1954), where industrial exhibitions are held, and the Palais des Beaux-Arts (1957). Institutions include a Université du Travail (business college), a medical and surgical institute, and an archaeological museum. Charleroi is linked to Brussels by rail and canal; its airport is 4 mi (6 km) north. Pop. (2007 est.) mun., 201,550.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Charleroi — Charleroi …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Charleroi — Bandera …   Wikipedia Español

  • CHARLEROI — Principale agglomération (206 900 hab. en janvier 1992) de la province de Hainaut en Belgique, située dans la vallée de la Sambre sur le long et étroit synclinal houiller qui traverse la Wallonie de part en part. La houille y était exploitée… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Charleroi —   [ʃarlə rwa], Stadt in der Provinz Hennegau, Belgien, an der Sambre, 203 900 Einwohner; Museum der Glasindustrie, Kunstmuseum, Theater. Die Schließung der Steinkohlenzechen sowie Konzentrationsmaßnahmen in der Glas und Hüttenindustrie konnten in …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Charleroi — Charleroi, PA U.S. borough in Pennsylvania Population (2000): 4871 Housing Units (2000): 2656 Land area (2000): 0.772118 sq. miles (1.999776 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.091761 sq. miles (0.237660 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.863879 sq. miles… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Charleroi, PA — U.S. borough in Pennsylvania Population (2000): 4871 Housing Units (2000): 2656 Land area (2000): 0.772118 sq. miles (1.999776 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.091761 sq. miles (0.237660 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.863879 sq. miles (2.237436 sq. km) …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Charleroi — (spr. Scharlroa), 1) Arrondissement in der belgischen Provinz Hennegau; 98,000 Ew.; 2) Hauptstadt darin an der Sambre u. der Eisenbahn von Lüttich nach St. Quentin (Köln Paris); Festung, die im Wesentlichen in Form eines regulären Sechsecks mit… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Charleroi — Charleroi, 1) Flecken im W. des nordamerikan. Staates Pennsylvanien, Grafschaft Washington, mit Kohlenbergbau und Glasindustrie und 5930 Einw. – 2) S. Charleroy …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

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  • Charleroi — (Scharlʼroa), belg. Stadt und Hauptfestung an der Sambre, an der Eisenbahn zwischen Mons und Namur, 8100 E.; in der Nähe reiche Steinkohlenbergwerke, daher wichtige Industrie in Eisenwaaren aller Art und Glashütten. Die Eisenhütte u.… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Charleroi — es una ciudad de Bélgica, situada en la provincia de Henao. * * * ► C. de Bélgica, prov. de Hainaut, a orillas del Sambre unida por un canal con Bruselas; 206 928 h. Centro minero. * * * Ciudad (pob., est. 2000: 200.800 hab.) situada en el… …   Enciclopedia Universal


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