chancellor


chancellor
/chan"seuh leuhr, -sleuhr, chahn"-/, n.
1. the chief minister of state in certain parliamentary governments, as in Germany; prime minister; premier.
2. the chief administrative officer in certain American universities.
3. a secretary, as to a king or noble or of an embassy.
4. the priest in charge of a Roman Catholic chancery.
5. the title of various important judges and other high officials.
6. (in some states of the U.S.) the judge of a court of equity or chancery.
7. Brit. the honorary, nonresident, titular head of a university. Cf. vice-chancellor.
[bef. 1100; ME chanceler < AF < LL cancellarius doorkeeper, lit., man at the barrier (see CHANCEL, -ER2); r. ME canceler, OE LL, as above]

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In western Europe, the title of holders of numerous offices of varying importance, ultimately political in nature.

The prime ministers of Germany and Austria are called chancellors. In Britain the chancellor of the Exchequer is the cabinet member in charge of finance. In the U.S. the title is used mainly for the chief administrators of universities.

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      in western Europe, the title of holders of numerous offices of varying importance, mainly secretarial, legal, administrative, and ultimately political in nature. The Roman cancellarii, minor legal officials who stood by the cancellus, or bar, separating the tribune from the public, were later employed in the imperial scrinia (writing departments). After the fall of the empire, the succeeding barbarian rulers copied Roman administrative practice; thus it came about that the writing offices of medieval territorial rulers, both secular and ecclesiastical, were presided over by a chancellor (sometimes an archchancellor, or a vice-chancellor). Until about the 13th century, few people besides priests, clerks, and monks were literate, and the chancellor was thus an ecclesiastic. As keeper of the great seal used to authenticate royal documents, the chancellor became, in most medieval kingdoms, the most powerful official. The office was finally abolished in Austria (1806), in France (1848), and in Spain (1873). In England no chancellor wielded primatial political power after Cardinal Wolsey; the lord high chancellor is now, as head of the judiciary and president of the House of Lords, a member of the Cabinet. In Germany from 1871 and in Austria from 1918, the title Kanzler (“chancellor”) has been held by the prime minister.

      The title chancellor is also the name in many countries of the heads of small archive offices, of the heads of universities, and of some orders of chivalry.

      In England the member of the Cabinet in charge of finance is called the chancellor of the Exchequer; another Cabinet member, the chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, is a minister without departmental responsibility whose title derives from that of the official originally employed by the crown to manage the palatine duchy of Lancaster.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chancellor — Chan cel*lor, n. [OE. canceler, chaunceler, F. chancelier, LL. cancellarius chancellor, a director of chancery, fr. L. cancelli lattices, crossbars, which surrounded the seat of judgment. See {Chancel}.] A judicial court of chancery, which in… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Chancellor — bezeichnet Chancellor (Rebsorte), eine Rebsorte Chancellor Records, eine Plattenfirma Chancellor of the Exchequer (engl.), britischer Schatzkanzler Chancellor (englisch: Kanzler) ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Anna Chancellor (* 1965),… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • chancellor — chan·cel·lor / chan sə lər/ n [Old French chancelier royal secretary, from Late Latin cancellarius doorkeeper, clerk, from Latin cancellus latticework barrier] 1: the head of a chancery: as a: the Lord Chancellor of Great Britain b: a judge in a… …   Law dictionary

  • chancellor — UK US /ˈtʃɑːnsələr/ noun [C] ● Chancellor Cf. Chancellor ► GOVERNMENT a title used in some countries for an official position of high rank in a government, legal system, or university: »She was the first woman chancellor of Germany. »Chancellor… …   Financial and business terms

  • Chancellor — ► GOVERNMENT, FINANCE CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER(Cf. ↑Chancellor of the Exchequer): »With news of profit losses across the nation, the chancellor is expected to cut interest rates. Main Entry: ↑chancellor …   Financial and business terms

  • Chancellor — Chancellor, SD U.S. town in South Dakota Population (2000): 328 Housing Units (2000): 142 Land area (2000): 0.246846 sq. miles (0.639328 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.246846 sq. miles… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Chancellor, SD — U.S. town in South Dakota Population (2000): 328 Housing Units (2000): 142 Land area (2000): 0.246846 sq. miles (0.639328 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.246846 sq. miles (0.639328 sq. km) FIPS …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • chancellor — ► NOUN 1) a senior state or legal official of various kinds. 2) (Chancellor) the head of the government in some European countries. DERIVATIVES chancellorship noun. ORIGIN Latin cancellarius porter, secretary (originally a court official… …   English terms dictionary

  • Chancellor — (spr. Tschänster), Richard, englischer Seefahrer, entdeckte 1553 bei Aufsuchung einer NODurchfahrt für eine Handelscompagnie, den Hafen von Archangel u. kam auf der Rückkehr bei einem Sturme an der schottischen Küste um. Die Beschreibung seiner… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Chancellor — (engl., spr. tschännß lĕr), Kanzler. C. of the exchequer (spr. tschéck r), Kanzler der Schatzkammer, in Großbritannien der Finanzminister; Lord High C. (spr. hei), der Großsiegelbewahrer, Justizminister und Sprecher im Oberhause …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Chancellor — (Tschänsellr), Richard, engl. Seefahrer, fand 1553 den Weg nach Archangel, kam bei der Rückkehr im Schiffbruch an der schott. Küste um …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon


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