cephalosporin


cephalosporin
/sef'euh loh spawr"in, -spohr"-/, n. Pharm.
any of a group of widely used broad-spectrum antibiotics, originally isolated as a product of fermentation from the fungus Cephalosporium acremonium.
[1950-55; < NL Cephalospor(ium) the genus (see CEPHALO-, -SPORE, -IUM) + -IN2]

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drug
      any of a group of β-lactam antibiotics that inhibit the synthesis of a structural component of the bacterial cell wall. The cephalosporins were first isolated from cultures of the fungus Cephalosporium acremonium. Modifications of the β-lactam ring have resulted in more than 20 derivatives with a range of antibacterial properties. The cephalosporins are often used as an alternative in patients who are sensitive to penicillin.

      The cephalosporins have been organized into groups based roughly on their activity. First-generation cephalosporins (e.g., cephalothin and cefalozin) tend to be broad-spectrum antibiotics that are effective against gram-positive and many gram-negative bacteria, including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and many strains of Escherichia coli. They have also been used to fight pulmonary infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

      Second-generation cephalosporins (e.g., cefuroxime and cefamandole) and third-generation ones (such as ceftazidime) tend to be more effective against gram-negative bacterial species that are resistant to the first-generation cephalosporins. Second-generation cephalosporins have proven effective against gonorrhea, Haemophilus influenzae, and the abscesses caused by Bacteroides fragilis. The ability of many cephalosporin derivatives to penetrate the cerebral spinal fluid makes them effective in treating meningitis.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cephalosporin C — IUPAC name (6R,7R) 3 [(Acetyloxy)methyl] 7 {[(5R) 5 amino 5 carboxypentanoyl]amino} 8 oxo 5 thia 1 azab …   Wikipedia

  • Cephalosporin — Ceph a*lo*spor in (s[e^]f [.a]*l[ o]*sp[=o]r [i^]n), n. [from Cephalosporium, a fungus producing the first of the series discovered.] (Chem.) any of a class of chemical substances, some of which have therapeutically useful antibacterial activity …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • cephalosporin C — Cephalosporin Ceph a*lo*spor in (s[e^]f [.a]*l[ o]*sp[=o]r [i^]n), n. [from Cephalosporium, a fungus producing the first of the series discovered.] (Chem.) any of a class of chemical substances, some of which have therapeutically useful… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • cephalosporin — [sef΄ə lō spôr′in] n. any of a major group of broad spectrum antibiotics produced by, or derived from, a fungus (genus Cephalosporium): an alternative for people allergic to penicillin …   English World dictionary

  • Cephalosporin — See also: Discovery and development of cephalosporins Core structure of the cephalosporins …   Wikipedia

  • Cephalosporin — Strukturformeln klassischer Cephalosporine. Cephalosporine sind eine Gruppe von Breitband Antibiotika für den medizinischen Einsatz. Wie auch die Penicilline gehören sie der Gruppe der β Lactam Antibiotika an. Sie wirken bakterizid auf… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • cephalosporin — Lactam Lac tam, n. [Lactone + amido.] (Chem.) One of a series of anhydrides of an amido type, analogous to the lactones, as oxindol; a cyclic amide. [1913 Webster] {beta lactam} or {[beta] lactam}, (a) a lactam in which the amide bond is… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • cephalosporin — This is an antibiotic produced by a Cephalosporium, but since the antibiotic was discovered the name Cephalosporium has been removed and the new name is Acremonium. c. C an antibiotic whose activity is due to the 7 aminocephalosporanic acid… …   Medical dictionary

  • cephalosporin C — the parent compound of the semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotics, which are used in the treatment of a wide variety of infections due to sensitive gram positive and gram negative bacteria …   Medical dictionary

  • Cephalosporin — Ce|phalo|spori̱n, eingedeutscht: Ze|phalo|spori̱n [zum wissenschaftlichen Namen der Deuteromyzetengattung Cephalosporium] s; s, e (meist Mehrz.): 1) Antibiotika, die aus Pilzen der Deuteromyzetengattung Cephalosporium gewonnen werden. 2) im… …   Das Wörterbuch medizinischer Fachausdrücke


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