celluloid


celluloid
/sel"yeuh loyd'/, n.
1. a tough, highly flammable substance consisting essentially of cellulose nitrate and camphor, used in the manufacture of motion-picture and x-ray film and other products.
2. motion-picture film.
adj.
3. Informal. of or involving motion pictures.
[former trademark; CELLUL(OSE) + -OID]

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Name for the first synthetic plastic material, developed in 1869.

Made of a colloid of cellulose nitrate (nitrocellulose) plasticized with camphor, it is tough, cheap to produce, and resistant to water, oils, and dilute acids. It found a great variety of uses in combs, films, toys, and many other mass-produced consumer goods. Though it has been replaced in many uses by nonflammable synthetic polymers (originally cellulose acetate and Bakelite, then a host of others), it is still manufactured and used.

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▪ synthetic plastic
      the first synthetic plastic material, developed by the American inventor John Wesley Hyatt (Hyatt, John Wesley) in the late 1860s from a homogeneous colloidal dispersion of cellulose nitrate and camphor. A tough material, with great tensile strength, resistance to water, oils, and dilute acids, capable of low-cost production in a variety of colours, it found a great variety of applications in combs, collars, films, toys, and many other mass-produced consumer goods. Although its flammability led to its replacement in many of these uses by newer synthetic polymers, celluloid has continued to be manufactured and widely used in Europe, the United States, Japan, and elsewhere. See also Bakelite.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • celluloïd — [ selylɔid ] n. m. • 1877; mot angl. amér., 1869; de cellulose et suff. oïd ♦ Produit de synthèse flexible, inflammable, à base de cellulose nitrique plastifiée par le camphre, utilisé autrefois dans la fabrication des films photographiques. Col …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Celluloid — is the name of a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, plus dyes and other agents. Generally regarded to be the first thermoplastic, it was first created as Parkesine in 1856 and as Xylonite in 1869 before being registered… …   Wikipedia

  • Celluloïd — Balles de tennis de table Général No CAS …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Celluloid — Celluloïd Le celluloïd est le nom donné à une matière composée essentiellement de nitrate de cellulose et de camphre. Elle est considérée comme la toute première matière plastique artificielle dont l origine remonte à 1856. Sa composition a été… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Celluloid [1] — Celluloid, eine harte, homogene und transparente Masse von ca. 1,37 spez. Gew., die bei gewöhnlicher Temperatur eine gewisse Elastizität besitzt, beim Erwärmen auf 90° plastisch wird und sich bei höherer Temperatur zersetzt. Bei 240° entzündet… …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • celluloid — transparent plastic made from nitro celluloses and camphor, 1871, trademark name (reg. U.S.), a hybrid coined by U.S. inventor John Wesley Hyatt (1837 1900) from CELLULOSE (Cf. cellulose) + Greek based suffix OID (Cf. oid). Used figuratively for… …   Etymology dictionary

  • celluloid — ☆ celluloid [sel′yo͞o loid΄ ] n. [ CELLUL(OSE) + OID] 1. a tough, flammable thermoplastic made from pyroxylin and camphor, used, esp. formerly, for toilet articles, novelties, etc. 2. films: from use of celluloid, esp. formerly, for photographic… …   English World dictionary

  • Celluloid — Cel lu*loid (s[e^]l [ u]*loid), n. [Cellulose + oid.] A substance composed essentially of gun cotton and camphor, and when pure resembling ivory in texture and color, but variously colored to imitate coral, tortoise shell, amber, malachite, etc.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Celluloid [2] — Celluloid für photographische Zwecke soll klar und farblos sein, ebenso für Kinofilms. Während der Kriegszeit wurde als Ersatzmaterial Sulfitcellulose verwendet, die klare, aber mehr gelbliche Schichten liefert. – Vgl. a. Kollodium. J.M.… …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • celluloid — ► NOUN 1) a transparent flammable plastic made from camphor and nitrocellulose, formerly used for cinematographic film. 2) the cinema as a genre …   English terms dictionary

  • Celluloid — Cel|lu|loid 〈n. 11; unz.; fachsprachl.〉 = Zelluloid * * * Cel|lu|loid [seltener auch …lo i:t; ↑ Cellulose u. ↑ oid], das; s; GS: Zelluloid; Syn.: Zellh …   Universal-Lexikon


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