—Celebesian /sel'euh bee"zheuhn/, adj./sel"euh beez', seuh lee"beez/; Du. /se lay"bes/, n.former name of Sulawesi.
* * *Ior SulawesiOne of the Greater Sunda Islands, it lies in the Malay Archipelago east of Borneo and has an area of 72,775 sq mi (188,487 sq km). The island is mountainous; its tallest peak, Mount Rantekombola, reaches 11,335 ft (3,455 m). Muslims arrived in the 15th century. The Portuguese first visited in 1512 while developing the spice trade of the Moluccas. The first foreign settlement, in 1607 by the Dutch at Makasar (now Ujung Pandang), initiated a power rivalry with the native sultans that lasted into the 20th century. Celebes joined Indonesia in 1950, though communist rebellions against the central government have been ongoing.II(as used in expressions)
* * *one of the four Greater Sunda Islands, Indonesia. A curiously shaped island with four distinct peninsulas that form three major gulfs—Tomini (the largest) on the northeast, Tolo on the east, and Bone on the south—Celebes has a coastline of 3,404 miles (5,478 km).The island is very mountainous, with some active volcanoes, but there are large plains on the southern peninsula and in the south-central part of the island on which rice is grown. The highest peak is Mount Rantekombola, or Mario, at 11,335 feet (3,455 metres). Major deep lakes (danau) are Towuti, Poso, and Matana, the latter having been sounded to 1,936 feet (590 metres). The rivers are short and unimportant.Celebes lies between the two shelves of the Australian and Asian continents. The broad central block is a complex of igneous rocks, in the southeastern corner of which is a broad band of volcanic detritus, known as tuff, more than 65 million years old; it is fringed occasionally by coral limestone. The southern ridge of Celebes has an axis of schist and quartzite, while the volcanic Minahasa area differs structurally from any other part of the island. The climate is hot but tempered by sea winds; annual rainfall varies from 160 inches (4,060 mm) in Rantepao (southwest-central section) to 21 inches (530 mm) in Palu (a rift valley near the western coast).Generally, the fauna is more Asian than Australian. Species unique to Celebes include the babirusa, or pig deer; the black-crested baboon; and the anoa, or dwarf buffalo. A distinct difference exists between the freshwater fish of Borneo and Celebes. Much of Celebes is still heavily forested, showing many floral resemblances to the Philippines but more Asian in the west and more Australian in the east.Seven major ethnic groups inhabit Celebes: the Toala, Toraja, Buginese, Makassarese, Minahasan, Mori, and Gorontalese. The Toala, who live throughout the island, are nomadic, shy jungle dwellers with their own language. The Toraja, inhabiting central, southeastern, and eastern Celebes, are of Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) ancestry; they have their own language and are primarily agriculturists. Most of them are Christians, although they still retain many traditional practices. The Buginese and Makassarese are Muslims who live in southern Celebes and are extremely industrious, especially in the manufacture of plaited goods and in weaving, gold and silver work, and shipbuilding. The Minahasan inhabit the area around Manado and are the most Westernized of the island peoples: they live in European style, each village having its Christian church and school. The Mori are a highland people inhabiting much of the eastern part of the island. The Gorontalese, in the west and south-central part of the northeastern peninsula, are Muslims.Celebes and neighbouring islands are divided into six propinsi (provinces). The most economically advanced regions are the southern peninsula and the tip of the northeastern peninsula. In the south, wet rice is cultivated, and corn (maize), cassava, yams, and beans are raised. Some tobacco is cultivated, and salt is produced on the coast. Grain is raised on the alluvial plain around Tempe and Sidenreng lakes. There is a hydroelectric-power station located on the Sawito River east of Parepare. In the northeast, copra, forest products, and some sulfur are produced; there is also much fishing.The eastern peninsula is largely undeveloped, with sparse population and predominantly subsistence agriculture. The southwestern peninsula and the central part of the island are centres for settlement programs, by means of which the national government has sponsored plans to resettle large numbers of people from Bali and Java to reduce population pressure on those islands. These areas of Celebes have thus become both more diverse and more highly developed. Roads link the principal towns of the southwestern peninsula, but elsewhere—with the exception of the Manado-Kema, the Kendari-Kolaka, and the Toraja highlands roads—they are limited to the coast. The major airports are at Makassar, Manado, Gorontalo, Kendari, Poso, and Palu.The earliest traces of human habitation on Celebes are stone implements of the Toalian culture. Muslim sultanates of coastal Malay were established in the southern Celebes in the century before the arrival of the Europeans. The Portuguese arrived about 1512 in pursuit of a spice-trade monopoly, and the Dutch built a settlement at Macassar (Makassar) in 1607. Dutch control gradually spread until the states of Bone and Gowa lost their independence in 1905 and 1911, respectively. Occupied by Japan during World War II, the island joined the Republic of Indonesia in 1950. Political disturbances and rebellions have flared on occasion. One response of the central government has been to form two more provinces on the island: Gorontalo (2001) in the northeast and West Sulawesi (2004) in the west. Area including adjacent islands, 74,845 square miles (193,847 square km). Pop. including adjacent islands, (2005) 15,788,005.
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См. также в других словарях:
Célèbes — Sulawesi Carte topographique de Célèbes. Géographie Pays … Wikipédia en Français
Célebes — es una gran isla de contorno peculiar ubicada en el sur de Asia y también conocida, en especial últimamente, con el nombre indonesio de Sulawesi. * * * (Sulawesi) ► Gran isla de Indonesia, en el centro del archipiélago homónimo, entre los mares… … Enciclopedia Universal
Celébes — (bei den Eingebornen im S. Tanah Mangkassar, Tanah Bugis, im N. Menado, im nordöstlichsten Teil Minahassa), eine der Großen Sundainseln, zu Niederländisch Ostindien gehörig (s. Karte »Hinterindien«), zwischen 1°45 nördl. bis 5°37 südl. Br. und… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Célèbes — ou Sulawesi île montagneuse et très découpée d Indonésie; 189 035 km²; 11 552 920 hab.; v. princ. Ujungpandang. Coprah, café; nickel. La mer de Célèbes (océan Pacifique) baigne le nord de l île Célèbes et Bornéo … Encyclopédie Universelle
Celebes — old name for modern Sulawesi (which might be a native corruption of Celebes) in Indonesia, first used by Portuguese, 1512, perhaps from Os Célebres the famous ones, a name given by navigators to the dangerous capes on the island s northeast coast … Etymology dictionary
Celĕbes — (ehemals Macassar, von den Bungis Negri Oran, von den Macassers Tamar Ugin genannt), eine der großen Sundainseln im Indischen Meere (Südasien), östlich von Borneo, erstreckt sich, höchst eigenthümlich gestaltet, 4 große Landzungen bildend, mit… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Celébes — Celébes, eine der Großen Sunda Inseln im Malaiischen Archipel, gegliedert in vier Halbinseln, zwischen denen die tiefen Golfe von Tomini (Gorontalo), Tomaiki und Boni, hat 179.416, mit Nebeninseln 201.957 qkm; sehr gebirgig, teilweise bes. im NO … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Celebes — Celebes, eine der Sunda Inseln im chinesischen Meere, südlich von Asien und östlich von Borneo (s. d.), hat einen Flächeninhalt von 2500 Quadrat Meilen, ist im Innern uns noch wenig bekannt, liefert aber da, wo die Niederländer eine Kolonie mit… … Damen Conversations Lexikon
Celebes — Celebes, eine der 4 großen Sundainseln im Australocean, unter dem Aequator, 2600 □M. groß, gebirgig, durch die tiefeindringenden Tomini , Tolu und Bonimeerbusen in 4 Halbinseln gespalten. Das Klima ist im allgemeinen gesund; die tropische… … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
Celebes — [sel′ə bēz΄, sə lē′bēz΄] another name for SULAWESI … English World dictionary
Célebes — Isla de Célebes Sulawesi División provincial de la isla de Célebes. Localización País … Wikipedia Español