cavitation


cavitation
/kav'i tay"sheuhn/, n.
1. the rapid formation and collapse of vapor pockets in a flowing liquid in regions of very low pressure, a frequent cause of structural damage to propellers, pumps, etc.
2. such a pocket formed in a flowing liquid.
[1890-95; CAVIT(Y) + -ATION]

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Formation of vapour bubbles within a liquid at low-pressure regions that occur in places where the liquid has been accelerated to high velocities, as in the operation of centrifugal pumps, water turbines, and marine propellers.

Cavitation is undesirable because it produces extensive erosion of the rotating blades, additional noise from the resultant knocking and vibrations, and a significant reduction of efficiency because it distorts the flow pattern. The cavities form when the pressure of the liquid has been reduced to its vapour pressure; they expand as the pressure is further reduced along with the flow, and they suddenly collapse when they reach regions of higher pressure.

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      formation of vapour bubbles within a liquid at low-pressure regions that occur in places where the liquid has been accelerated to high velocities, as in the operation of centrifugal pumps, water turbines, and marine propellers. Cavitation is undesirable because it produces extensive erosion of the rotating blades, additional noise from the resultant knocking and vibrations, and a significant reduction of efficiency because it distorts the flow pattern. The cavities form when the pressure of the liquid has been reduced to its vapour pressure; they expand as the pressure is further reduced along with the flow and suddenly collapse when they reach regions of higher pressure. The sudden growth and collapse of these vapour cavities cause the extreme pressures that pit the metal surfaces exposed to the cavitating liquid.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Cavitation — heißt nach Barnaby [1] die Bildung von Hohlräumen im Wasser an der Vorderfläche schnell rotierender Schiffsschrauben, hervorgerufen durch Abreißen des vom Propeller erzeugten Wasserstromes. Die Theorie der Cavitation bei Schiffsschrauben, die von …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • Cavitation — Cavitation. См. Кавитация. (Источник: «Металлы и сплавы. Справочник.» Под редакцией Ю.П. Солнцева; НПО Профессионал , НПО Мир и семья ; Санкт Петербург, 2003 г.) …   Словарь металлургических терминов

  • cavitation — formation of bubbles in fluid, 1895, from CAVITY (Cf. cavity) + ATION (Cf. ation) …   Etymology dictionary

  • cavitation —  Cavitation  Кавитация   Образование в жидкости полостей (кавитационных пузырьков, или каверн), заполненных газом, паром или их смесью. Кавитация возникает в результате местного понижения давления в жидкости, которое может происходить либо при… …   Толковый англо-русский словарь по нанотехнологии. - М.

  • cavitation — [kav΄i tā′shən] n. [< LL cavitas, CAVITY + ATION] the formation of partial vacuums within a flowing liquid as a result of mechanical force, as with a boat propeller or a pump impeller: when these collapse, pitting or other damage is caused on… …   English World dictionary

  • Cavitation — Diagramme pression température de l eau présentant la cavitation. On appelle cavitation (du latin cavus, « trou ») la naissance et l oscillation radiale de bulles de gaz et de vapeur dans un liquide soumis à une dépression. Si cette… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Cavitation — Kavitation erzeugender Propeller Kavitation (lat. cavitare „aushöhlen“) ist die Bildung und Auflösung von Hohlräumen in Flüssigkeiten durch Druckschwankungen. Man unterscheidet zwei Grenzfälle, zwischen denen es viele Übergangsformen gibt. Bei… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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