Cape Verde


Cape Verde
Cape Verdean /verr"dee euhn/.
/verrd/
a republic consisting of a group of islands (Cape Verde Islands) in the Atlantic, W of Senegal in W Africa: formerly an overseas territory of Portugal; gained independence in 1975. 393,843; 1557 sq. mi. (4033 sq. km). Cap.: Praia.

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Cape Verde

Introduction Cape Verde -
Background: The uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th century; they subsequently became a trading center for African slaves and later an important coaling and resupply stop for whaling and transatlantic shipping. Most Cape Verdeans have both African and Portuguese antecedents. Independence was achieved in 1975. Geography Cape Verde
Location: Western Africa, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Senegal
Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 24 00 W
Map references: Political Map of the World
Area: total: 4,033 sq km water: 0 sq km land: 4,033 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly larger than Rhode Island
Land boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 965 km
Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines territorial sea: 12 NM exclusive economic zone: 200 NM contiguous zone: 24 NM
Climate: temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic
Terrain: steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mt. Fogo 2,829 m (a volcano on Fogo Island)
Natural resources: salt, basalt rock, limestone, kaolin, fish
Land use: arable land: 9.68% permanent crops: 0.5% other: 89.83% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land: 30 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: prolonged droughts; seasonal harmattan wind produces obscuring dust; volcanically and seismically active Environment - current issues: soil erosion; demand for wood used as fuel has resulted in deforestation; desertification; environmental damage has threatened several species of birds and reptiles; illegal beach sand extraction; overfishing Environment - international party to: Biodiversity, Climate
agreements: Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note: strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north- south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site People Cape Verde -
Population: 408,760 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 41.9% (male 86,466; female 84,918) 15-64 years: 51.5% (male 100,684; female 109,841) 65 years and over: 6.6% (male 10,363; female 16,488) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.85% (2002 est.)
Birth rate: 27.81 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate: 7.01 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate: -12.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/ female total population: 0.94 male(s)/ female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 51.86 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.52 years female: 72.91 years (2002 est.) male: 66.23 years
Total fertility rate: 3.91 children born/woman (2002 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.04% (2001 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/ 775 (2001)
AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 225 (as of 2001)
Nationality: noun: Cape Verdean(s) adjective: Cape Verdean
Ethnic groups: Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%
Religions: Roman Catholic (infused with indigenous beliefs); Protestant (mostly Church of the Nazarene)
Languages: Portuguese, Crioulo (a blend of Portuguese and West African words)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 71.6% male: 81.4% female: 63.8% (1995 est.) Government Cape Verde -
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde conventional short form: Cape Verde local short form: Cabo Verde local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde
Government type: republic
Capital: Praia Administrative divisions: 17 districts (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Calheta, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao Nicolau, Sao Filipe, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal
Independence: 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1975)
Constitution: new constitution came into force 25 September 1992; underwent a major revision on 23 November 1995, substantially increasing the powers of the president, and a further revision in 1999, to create the position of national ombudsman (Provedor de Justica)
Legal system: derived from the legal system of Portugal
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Pedro PIRES (since 22 March 2001) head of government: Prime Minister Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 1 February 2001) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 11 and 25 February 2001 (next to be held NA February 2006); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president election results: Pedro PIRES elected president; percent of vote - Pedro PIRES (PAICV) 49.43%, Carlos VIEGA (MPD) 49.42%; note - the election was won by only twelve votes
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 14 January 2001 (next to be held NA December 2005) election results: percent of vote by party - PAICV 47.3%, MPD 39.8%, ADM 6%, other 6.9%; seats by party - PAICV 40, MPD 30, ADM 2
Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de Justia Political parties and leaders: African Party for Independence of Cape Verde or PAICV [Jose Maria Pereira NEVES, chairman]; Democratic Alliance for Change or ADM [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO] (a coalition of PCD, PTS, and UCID); Democratic Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES, chairman]; Democratic Renovation Party or PRD [Jacinto SANTOS, president]; Movement for Democracy or MPD [Agostinho LOPES, president]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO, president]; Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Anibal MEDINA, president]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Joao ALEM, president] Political pressure groups and NA
leaders: International organization ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS,
participation: FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer) Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jose BRITO consulate(s) general: Boston FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207 telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820 chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007 Diplomatic representation from the chief of mission: Ambassador Michael
US: D. METELITS embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo 81, Praia mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia telephone: [238] 61 56 16 FAX: [238] 61 13 55
Flag description: three horizontal bands of light blue (top, double width), white (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle third), and light blue; a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered on the hoist end of the red stripe and extends into the upper and lower blue bands Economy Cape Verde
Economy - overview: Cape Verde suffers from a poor natural resource base, including serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of long-term drought. The economy is service-oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services accounting for 70% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural areas, the share of agriculture in GDP in 2001 was only 11%, of which fishing accounts for 1.5%. About 82% of food must be imported. The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by foreign aid and remittances from emigrants; remittances supplement GDP by more than 20%. Economic reforms, launched by the new democratic government in 1991, are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy. Prospects for 2002 depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, remittances, and the momentum of the government's development program.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $600 million (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,500 (2001 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 11% industry: 17% services: 72% (2001) Population below poverty line: 30% (2000) Household income or consumption by lowest 10%: NA%
percentage share: highest 10%: NA% Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2001)
Labor force: NA
Unemployment rate: 21% (2000 est.)
Budget: revenues: $112 million expenditures: $198 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000)
Industries: food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt mining, ship repair Industrial production growth rate: NA% Electricity - production: 41 million kWh (2000) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 100% hydro: 0% other: 0% (2000) nuclear: 0% Electricity - consumption: 38.13 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products: bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, coffee, peanuts; fish
Exports: $27.3 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Exports - commodities: fuel, shoes, garments, fish, hides
Exports - partners: Portugal 45%, UK 20%, Germany 20%, Guinea-Bissau 5% (1999)
Imports: $218 million (f.o.b., 2001 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, industrial products, transport equipment, fuels
Imports - partners: Portugal 52%, Germany 7%, France 4%, UK 3% (1999)
Debt - external: $301 million (2000) Economic aid - recipient: $136 million (1999)
Currency: Cape Verdean escudo (CVE)
Currency code: CVE
Exchange rates: Cape Verdean escudos per US dollar - 123.556 (January 2002), 115.877 (2000), 102.700 (1999), 98.158 (1998), 93.177 (1997)
Fiscal year: calendar year Communications Cape Verde - Telephones - main lines in use: 60,935 (2002) Telephones - mobile cellular: 28,119 (2002)
Telephone system: general assessment: effective system, being improved domestic: interisland microwave radio relay system with both analog and digital exchanges; work is in progress on a submarine fiber-optic cable system which is scheduled for completion in 2003 international: 2 coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 11 (and 14 repeaters), shortwave 0 (1998)
Radios: 100,000 (2002 est.) Television broadcast stations: 3 (2002)
Televisions: 15,000 (2002 est.)
Internet country code: .cv Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 1 (2000)
Internet users: 8,000 (2001) Transportation Cape Verde -
Railways: 0 km
Highways: total: 1,100 km paved: 858 km unpaved: 242 km (1996)
Waterways: none
Ports and harbors: Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal
Merchant marine: total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,395 GRT/6,614 DWT ships by type: cargo 3, chemical tanker 1 note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: United Kingdom 1 (2002 est.)
Airports: 9 note: 3 airports are reported to be nonoperational (2001) Airports - with paved runways: total: 3 over 3,047 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2001) Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2001) Military Cape Verde -
Military branches: Army, Coast Guard Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 92,486 (2002 est.) Military manpower - fit for military males age 15-49: 52,215 (2002 est.)
service: Military expenditures - dollar $9.3 million (FY01)
figure: Military expenditures - percent of 1.6% (FY01)
GDP: Transnational Issues Cape Verde - Disputes - international: none
Illicit drugs: used as a transshipment point for illicit drugs moving from Latin America and Asia destined for Western Europe

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officially Republic of Cape Verde

Island republic, central Atlantic Ocean.

Lying 385 mi (620 km) off the western coast of Senegal, it consists of 10 islands and five islets. Area: 1,557 sq mi (4,033 sq km). Population (2002 est.): 453,000. Capital: Praia. More than two-thirds of its population is Creole (mixed origin); the remainder are European and black African. Languages: Portuguese (official), Crioulo (a Portuguese dialect). Religions: Roman Catholicism (official), Protestantism. Currency: Cape Verde escudo. The mountainous windward islands are craggy and furrowed by erosion; the flat leeward islands are largely plains and lowlands. The islands are volcanic in origin. Fogo Island has an active volcano that erupted in 1951; it is also the location of the highest peak, which rises 9,281 ft (2,829 m). The largest of the other islands are Santo Antão, São Vincente, and São Nicolau. Cape Verde has a developing mixed economy based largely on agriculture, though tourism has been promoted. It is a republic with one legislative house; its chief of state is the president and its head of government, the prime minister. When visited by the Portuguese 1456–60, the islands were uninhabited. In 1460 Diogo Gomes sighted and named Maio and São Tiago, and in 1462 the first settlers landed on São Tiago, founding the city of Ribeira Grande. The city's importance grew with the development of the slave trade, and its wealth attracted pirates so often that it was abandoned after 1712. The prosperity of the Portuguese-controlled islands vanished with the decline of the slave trade in the 19th century, but later improved because of their position on the great trade routes between Europe, South America, and South Africa. In 1951 the colony became an overseas province of Portugal. Many islanders preferred outright independence, and it was finally granted in 1975. Once associated politically with Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde split from it in 1981.

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▪ 2009

Area:
4,033 sq km (1,557 sq mi)
Population
(2008 est.): 500,000
Capital:
Praia
Chief of state:
President Pedro Pires
Head of government:
Prime Minister José Maria Neves

      In 2008 Cape Verde continued to enjoy political stability and annual economic growth of more than 6%, thanks in part to new infrastructural development and increased tourism. In January, Cape Verde was upgraded by the United Nations from a lower-income country to a middle-income country, joining only 13 other African countries with that status.

      Cape Verde, which had been involved in accession negotiations with the World Trade Organization (WTO) since 1999 and in December 2007 was invited to join the body, accepted the terms of accession on June 23, 2008; Cape Verde became the WTO's 153rd member on July 23. Some concerns were expressed, however, that businesses would be unable to survive without tariff protection, which would be phased out under WTO rules. The country remained highly dependent on remittances from expatriates to cover a large trade deficit, and the government sought continued international aid to help it reduce its economic vulnerability and to further boost economic growth. After Prime Minister José Maria Neves reshuffled his cabinet in June, he signed a €50 million (€1 = about $1.40) development-fund agreement with Spain; the money would be used in part to pay for a ship to boost interisland trade and passenger links. In August the EU promised Cape Verde €51 million over five years, mainly to fund programs to promote economic growth, poverty reduction, and good governance.

Christopher Saunders

▪ 2008

Area:
4,033 sq km (1,557 sq mi)
Population
(2007 est.): 496,000
Capital:
Praia
Chief of state:
President Pedro Pires
Head of government:
Prime Minister José Maria Neves

      Cape Verde enjoyed political stability and a tourism boom in 2007, following the election of Prime Minister José Maria Neves to a second five-year term in 2006. New direct flights brought Europeans from Portugal and Britain, and new international airports were being built on two of the islands. Along with the tourist boom came concerns about the spread of HIV/AIDS, though prevalence remained relatively low. There was an accompanying property boom, with the largest single investment by a Spanish consortium on the island of Boa Vista. Few of the more than 500,000 Cape Verdeans living abroad returned, however, and they continued to outnumber those living on the 10 islands of the archipelago. Half of those living abroad resided in the U.S., and contacts remained close between the two countries. The large sums in remittances sent home, along with donor money from the European Development Fund, Japan, and others, continued to keep Cape Verde afloat.

      In 2007 a number of West Africans who were trying to reach the Spanish Canary Islands by boat ended up mistakenly in Cape Verde. They were designated illegal immigrants and housed temporarily in poor conditions prior to their deportation back to West Africa.

Christopher Saunders

▪ 2007

Area:
4,033 sq km (1,557 sq mi)
Population
(2006 est.): 485,000
Capital:
Praia
Chief of state:
President Pedro Pires
Head of government:
Prime Minister José Maria Neves

      In the parliamentary elections held in January 2006, the African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV), led by Prime Minister José Maria Neves, won a second five-year term. The main opposition party, the Movement for Democracy (MpD), alleged fraud. Though the Supreme Tribunal of Justice threw out the allegations, it ordered a repeat ballot for Cape Verdean emigrants in São Tomé and Príncipe. The overall outcome of the election was not affected, however. Three weeks after the parliamentary poll, incumbent president and PAICV candidate Pedro Pires, a veteran of the liberation struggle against the Portuguese, won the presidential election, defeating MpD candidate Carlos Veiga by 51% to 49%, thanks to the votes he secured from Cape Verdeans living abroad. Of the 325,000 Cape Verde citizens registered to vote, about 20% lived either in Portugal or in the United States. Veiga alleged fraud, and the matter went to the high court. The government in return filed a slander suit against the MpD and Veiga for “calumny” against state institutions.

      After an IMF team visited, Cape Verde was commended for its economic and policy performance. GDP growth of nearly 6% was achieved in 2005, owing largely to infrastructural projects and construction for the tourism sector, but the country had a large external debt, and a quarter of its population remained unemployed. Cape Verde received one of the highest levels of aid per capita anywhere and remained highly dependent on money earned by the 700,000 Cape Verdeans who lived abroad.

Christopher Saunders

▪ 2006

Area:
4,033 sq km (1,557 sq mi)
Population
(2005 est.): 476,000
Capital:
Praia
Chief of state:
President Pedro Pires
Head of government:
Prime Minister José Maria Neves

      In February 2005 former Portuguese president Mário Soares called on his country to press the European Union to admit Cape Verde as a member. Soares saw Cape Verde as a bridge between the EU and Africa and Latin America. More than 70% of the people were literate in Portuguese, and the government sought to encourage tourism from the EU. In May the IMF confirmed that the country's macroeconomic policies were sound. GDP growth went down in 2004 to 4.5% because of difficulties in the agricultural sector. Remittances from Cape Verdeans living aboard continued to be important, but the government's privatization program was moving toward completion. When Prime Minister José Maria Neves visited Washington, D.C., in July, his country was praised for good governance and was promised greatly increased aid under the Millennium Challenge Account, a fund to reward less-developed nations making progress in political and economic reform. NATO's elite Response Force agreed to hold major military maneuvers in Cape Verde in 2006. In the parliament, however, a bill promoted by the ruling African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde creating a Republican Intelligence Service, meant in part to deal with the increase in organized crime, especially drug trafficking, was rejected by the opposition on the grounds that the new force might not act impartially.

Christopher Saunders

▪ 2005

Area:
4,033 sq km (1,557 sq mi)
Population
(2004 est.): 454,000
Capital:
Praia
Chief of state:
President Pedro Pires
Head of government:
Prime Minister José Maria Neves

      In 2004, because of Cape Verde's political stability and reputation for efficient government and an economy that had provided annual GDP growth averaging 7% a year for a decade, the UN Economic and Social Council decided to review its status as a “least developed country.” Though the government was concerned that becoming a “medium developed county” would mean less international aid, it saw reclassification as a recognition of its success. On the UN Development Programme's Human Development Index, Cape Verde now ranked second in sub-Saharan Africa, after Mauritius. Cape Verde's main sources of income remained aid, overseas remittances (more Cape Verdeans lived abroad than in the country itself), and fish exports. The government aimed to establish a more broadly based economy. Offshore oil exploration was a possibility, and tourism was seen as a major growth area, expected to be boosted by the new international airport to open at the capital, Praia, by the end of 2004. In August, when visiting China, Prime Minister José Maria Neves said that Cape Verde hoped to become West Africa's main freight transit and financial centre. Meanwhile, locust swarms, blown from the African mainland, devoured what vegetation they could find on the islands.

Christopher Saunders

▪ 2004

Area:
4,033 sq km (1,557 sq mi)
Population
(2003 est.): 438,000
Capital:
Praia
Chief of state:
President Pedro Pires
Head of government:
Prime Minister José Maria Neves

      Cape Verde suffered in 2003 from the consequences of a failed harvest in 2002. The country had long been heavily dependent on food imports, and the World Food Programme had to begin to supply food aid. The International Monetary Fund had granted the country a loan under its Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility in 2002. Working closely with the IMF, the government tried to reduce the deficit by cutting expenditure, keeping down inflation, and strengthening its reserves. A value-added tax was implemented in 2003, and two money-losing public enterprises were liquidated. Further privatization was planned, and in May 2003 the World Bank approved a loan to help promote the private sector by reducing government red tape and providing support to private companies.

      The visit of Pres. Pedro Pires to the U.S. in mid-2002 had been intended in part to persuade the many Cape Verdeans resident there—especially in New England—to assist their country. Cape Verde was a member of the organization of African Portuguese-speaking countries known as PALOP and in September 2003 participated in a meeting in Lisbon, where members decided to strengthen cooperation between PALOP and Portugal itself. At the same time a bilateral commission worked to promote relations with Angola.

Christopher Saunders

▪ 2003

Area:
4,033 sq km (1,557 sq mi)
Population
(2002 est.): 453,000
Capital:
Praia
Chief of state:
President Pedro Pires
Head of government:
Prime Minister José Maria Neves

      In his 2002 New Year's message to the island nation, Pres. Pedro Pires praised workers for not demanding higher wages in a difficult economic climate and appealed to the large number of Cape Verdeans living abroad to help their country. When in January he promulgated the general state budget without having secured the necessary two-thirds in the parliament, the main opposition party, the Movement for Democracy (MPD) reacted with outrage. Claiming that Pires had no respect for the democratic process and had become a de facto dictator, the MPD organized a protest march in the capital and said that it would appeal to the Supreme Tribunal of Justice to test the constitutionality of the president's action. Pires claimed that he had no choice but to act because projects could not be delayed; in addition, pledges had been made to international financial institutions and development partners.

      Though South African Airways continued to use Sal Island as a refueling stop for planes en route to the United States, the fragile Cape Verdean economy faced many problems. The country produced only about 10% of its annual food requirements, and a particularly dry season had much reduced the corn (maize) crop. As a result, the government requested help from the UN World Food Programme, which in June launched a $1.3 million emergency food operation to help feed some 30,000 Cape Verdeans on the islands of Santiago and Santo Antão. Meanwhile, HIV/AIDS was spreading rapidly.

Christopher Saunders

▪ 2002

Area:
4,033 sq km (1,557 sq mi)
Population
(2001 est.): 446,000
Capital:
Praia
Chief of state:
Presidents Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro and, from March 22, Pedro Pires
Head of government:
Prime Ministers António Gualberto do Rosário and, from February 1, José Maria Neves

      The year 2001 marked the end of 10 years of rule by the Movement for Democracy and the return to power of the African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (PAIVC). In legislative elections held in January, the PAIVC won the majority of seats, and its leader, José Maria Neves, became the new prime minister. In the second round of the presidential election, held in February, Pedro Pires, the PAIVC candidate and a former prime minister, emerged as the winner by a very narrow margin of votes.

      For both major parties the chief issue was the archipelago's troubled economy. Though Neves underscored the need to reduce unemployment and tackle poverty, the means by which he intended to accomplish this remained far from clear. The economy, hard hit by drought, remained heavily reliant on agriculture and fishing. Cape Verde continued to depend on international aid, most notably from the European Union and Portugal. In July Cape Verde signed two financial agreements with Portugal aimed at strengthening the convertibility of the currency and promoting the restructuring of the economy and of the country's debt.

Christopher Saunders

▪ 2001

Area:
4,033 sq km (1,557 sq mi)
Population
(2000 est.): 401,000
Capital:
Praia
Chief of state:
President Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro
Head of government:
Prime Ministers Carlos Veiga and, from July 29, António Gualberto do Rosário

      The World Bank and International Monetary Fund structural-adjustment programs had profound implications for national politics in Cape Verde in 2000. Designed to help attract foreign investment, the government's privatization program—especially the privatization of the state petroleum company Enacol—was strongly criticized by the main opposition party, the former ruling African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde, as well as by some members of the ruling Movement for Democracy. In July Prime Minister Carlos Veiga resigned and became a presidential candidate for the 2001 elections; he was replaced by his deputy, António Gualberto do Rosário. When the ruling party split, a new party emerged; the Democratic Renovation Party, headed by former Praia town councillor Jacinto Santos, began campaigning for the legislative elections, also due in early 2001.

      A July visit by the new Senegalese president, Abdoulaye Wade (see Biographies), helped cement relations with that country, and closer ties were established with Angola. Diplomatic relations with China were strengthened during the year, as Cape Verde expressed support for the reunification of Taiwan and China.

Christopher Saunders

▪ 2000

Area:
4,033 sq km (1,557 sq mi)
Population
(1999 est.): 406,000
Capital:
Praia
Chief of state:
President Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro
Head of government:
Prime Minister Carlos Veiga

      In April 1999 Prime Minister Carlos Veiga announced that he would retire as leader of the ruling party, the Movimento para a Democracia (MPD), at the next congress of the party, to be held in February 2000. The vice prime minister, Gualberto do Rosario, whose support came mainly from the north and who was a technocrat closely associated with economic reform, announced his candidacy for the post of leader of the MPD in May. His main opponent was the mayor of Praia, Jacinto Santos, leader of the southern group within the party. As rivalry between the two men became heated, Veiga called on them to suspend their campaigns in the interest of party unity.

      Growth in the country's gross domestic product in 1998–99 continued to be well over 5%, with privatization gathering pace and the textile and tourism industries flourishing. After the Cape Verde escudo was pegged to the Portuguese currency (which in turn became part of the euro) as of Jan. 1, 1999, inflation fell to the target of 3%. Cape Verde secured substantial aid from the World Bank, Portugal, and the OPEC Fund for International Development to promote privatization, infrastructure development, and education. By 1999 the per capita income of $1,200 was the highest in West Africa, but economic activity remained largely confined to Cape Verde's two largest islands, Santiago and São Vicente.

Christopher Saunders

▪ 1999

      Area: 4,033 sq km (1,557 sq mi)

      Population (1998 est.): 400,000

      Capital: Praia

      Chief of state: President Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro

      Head of government: Prime Minister Carlos Veiga

      After disputes within the ruling Movement for Democracy, the party president and prime minister, Carlos Veiga, strengthened his position in 1998 when he reshuffled his Cabinet in April and May, bringing in a new minister of foreign affairs and appointing the former minister for economic coordination as deputy prime minister. As a member of an association of Portuguese-speaking African countries, Cape Verde played an important role in relation to conflicts elsewhere on the continent. After war broke out in Guinea-Bissau in June, the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries (Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, and São Tomé and Príncipe) held a summit in Praia, at which steps were taken to promote a cease-fire. Peace talks were later held in Praia between the government of Guinea-Bissau and the rebels, and an agreement was negotiated.

      Cape Verde remained heavily dependent on the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, which helped it reschedule some of its debt, and on transfers from an estimated 700,000 Cape Verdeans living abroad; these transfers represented 20% of gross domestic product. More than 25% of the population on the republic's nine inhabited islands remained unemployed.

CHRISTOPHER SAUNDERS

▪ 1998

      Area: 4,033 sq km (1,557 sq mi)

      Population (1997 est.): 394,000

      Capital: Praia

      Chief of state: President Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro

      Head of government: Prime Minister Carlos Veiga

      Cape Verde's economy remained stable during 1997, though unemployment continued to affect approximately 25% of the population. In mid-June Prime Minister Carlos Veiga announced the signing of an agreement with Italy aimed at increasing Italian investments in Cape Verde, particularly in the tourism industry. On June 26 the African Development Bank (ADB) awarded a loan worth $4.9 million to Cape Verde to finance road-rehabilitation projects on four of its islands, a loan the ADB said Cape Verde would have 50 years to repay. Gualberto do Rosario, the minister for economic cooperation, stated in late July that Cape Verde would aim at having no state deficit in 1998.

      On August 29 Cape Verde and Angola signed accords proclaiming their intention to work together in the fields of health and social welfare. In September Prime Minister Veiga visited Angola in a further effort to strengthen bilateral ties with that southern African country, where nearly 100,000 of the 600,000 Cape Verdeans living abroad resided. In late October, accompanied by a political and economic delegation, Veiga paid his first official visit to China. By 1997 China had provided loans to Cape Verde estimated at $19.8 million.

GUY ARNOLD

      This article updates Cape Verde, history of (Cape Verde).

▪ 1997

      The republic of Cape Verde occupies an island group in the Atlantic Ocean about 620 km (385 mi) off the west coast of Africa. Area: 4,033 sq km (1,557 sq mi). Pop. (1996 est.): 403,000. Cap.: Praia. Monetary unit: Cape Verde escudo, with (Oct. 11, 1996) a free rate of 82.97 escudos to U.S. $1 (130.70 escudos = £ 1 sterling). President in 1996, Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro; prime minister, Carlos Veiga.

      In the December 1995 elections for the National Assembly, the ruling Movement for Democracy (MPD) won an absolute majority, gaining 50 of the 72 seats. Although the African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV), which had been the sole ruling party until 1991, accepted defeat, it claimed that the MPD had used its monopoly control of communications to flood the country with its propaganda; it also accused the MPD of buying votes. The PAICV obtained 21 seats and the Democratic Convergence Party the remaining seat.

      In the presidential elections on February 18, Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro of the MPD was reelected president—no other party put up a candidate—but there was a 60% rate of abstention. In March Prime Minister Carlos Veiga carried out a major Cabinet reshuffle and brought five new ministers into his team. (GUY ARNOLD)

      This article updates Cape Verde, history of (Cape Verde).

▪ 1996

      The republic of Cape Verde occupies an island group in the Atlantic Ocean about 620 km (385 mi) off the west coast of Africa. Area: 4,033 sq km (1,557 sq mi). Pop. (1995 est.): 392,000. Cap.: Praia. Monetary unit: Cape Verde escudo, with (Oct. 6, 1995) a free rate of 82.97 escudos to U.S. $1 (131.17 escudos = £ 1 sterling). President in 1995, Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro; prime minister, Carlos Veiga.

      In January, Prime Minister Carlos Veiga carried out a major reshuffle of his Cabinet. His object, he claimed, was to facilitate the country's shift from a state-run to a market-oriented economy. The most important change was to combine the Ministries of Finance, of Economic Coordination, and of Tourism, Industry and Commerce into a single Ministry of Economic Coordination. A new Ministry of the Sea was also established to deal with fisheries, marine affairs, and ports.

      A volcano erupted on the island of Fogo in early April. After apparently quieting down, it then began to erupt more violently, sending lava in streams toward populated areas at a rate of five to seven metres per hour.

      The Cape Verde economy remained substantially dependent upon foreign aid, and in this respect the European Union (EU) was an important donor. EU aid projects included the electrification of rural Praia, the improvement of living conditions in the centre of Praia, and the development of a road infrastructure program in São Tiago, São Nicolau, and Maio islands. Cape Verde was also included in an EU regional solar energy program. Inflation during the year was 6%. (GUY ARNOLD)

      This updates the article Cape Verde, history of (Cape Verde).

▪ 1995

      The republic of Cape Verde occupies an island group in the Atlantic Ocean about 620 km (385 mi) off the west coast of Africa. Area: 4,033 sq km (1,557 sq mi). Pop. (1994 est.): 355,000. Cap.: Praia. Monetary unit: Cape Verde escudo, with (Oct. 7, 1994) a free rate of 83.05 escudos to U.S. $1 (132.09 escudos = £ 1 sterling). President in 1994, Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro; prime minister, Carlos Veiga.

      The 1994 budget, presented in January, boosted public investment but also cut back on overall expenditure. The National People's Assembly approved an expenditure of $227 million, of which government spending would total $218 million; a deficit of $9 million would be made up by foreign aid. Public investment in 1994 was to be increased to $138 million (as compared with $80 million in 1993), with priority going to transportation, telecommunications, and various aspects of rural development. Fuel prices and taxes on alcohol and tobacco were raised to help pay for these proposed investments.

      Following the resignation in February of Enrico Correia Monteiro, the minister of justice and labour, and his subsequent defection from the ruling party, the Movement for Democracy, to form a new party, Prime Minister Carlos Veiga was obliged to reshuffle his Cabinet. Pedro Monteiro Freine de Andrade was appointed minister of justice and labour, and José Media was named minister of health.

      (GUY ARNOLD)

      This updates the article Cape Verde, history of (Cape Verde).

▪ 1994

      The republic of Cape Verde occupies an island group in the Atlantic Ocean about 620 km (385 mi) off the west coast of Africa. Area: 4,033 sq km (1,557 sq mi). Pop. (1993 est.): 350,000. Cap.: Praia. Monetary unit: Cape Verde escudo, with (Oct. 4, 1993) a free rate of 73.66 escudos to U.S. $1 (111.60 escudos = £ 1 sterling). President in 1993, Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro; prime minister, Carlos Veiga.

      In January 1993 Prime Minister Carlos Veiga announced that the privatization of a range of industries in Cape Verde was to be carried out over the next four years and a reform program to liberalize the economy was to be drawn up for immediate implementation. The prime minister insisted that the program would be indigenous and not one designed on Cape Verde's behalf by either the World Bank or the International Monetary Fund. As part of his economy measures, he also announced that the civil service was to be reduced by half. In a major Cabinet reshuffle in March, the foreign minister, Jorge Carlos Fonseca, was dismissed without explanation; he was replaced by Manuel Casimiro de Jesus Chantre. Reports of a coup attempt in August were vehemently denied by Pres. Mascarenhas Monteiro's permanent undersecretary.

      Although Cape Verde had a per capita gross national product of $890 (which was considerably higher than that of a number of other African states), the country was permanently dependent upon aid to maintain it. The adverse balance of trade was running at between 85 and 90%, and exports consisted mainly of bananas and fish (tuna).

      (GUY ARNOLD)

      This updates the article Cape Verde, history of (Cape Verde).

* * *

Introduction
officially  Republic of Cape Verde,  Portuguese  República de Cabo Verde,  
 country comprising a group of islands that lie 385 miles (620 kilometres) off the west coast of Africa, between 14°30′ and 17°30′ N and between 22°30′ and 25°30′ W. Praia on São Tiago is the capital.

      Cape Verde is named after the westernmost cape of Africa, which is the nearest point on the continent. The country consists of 10 islands and five islets, which are divided into the Windward (Barlavento) and Leeward (Sotavento) groups. The Windward Islands consist of Santo Antão, São Vicente, Santa Luzia (Santa Luzia Island), São Nicolau, Boa Vista, and Sal, together with the islets of Raso and Branco. The Leeward Islands include Maio, São Tiago (Santiago), Fogo, and Brava (Brava Island) and the three islets called the Rombos—Grande, Luís Carneiro, and Cima.

      The largest port in the islands is Porto Grande at Mindelo, on São Vicente (São Vicente Island). Its deepwater harbour accommodates sizable vessels and is used primarily as a fueling station.

The land

Relief, drainage, and soils
 

      The islands are mountainous and are volcanic in origin. Only the three oldest—Boa Vista, Maio (Maio Island), and Sal (Sal Island), the so-called Rasas (“Flat”) islands—have suffered enough erosion to have much level ground. Fogo (Fogo Island) (meaning “Fire”) has an active volcano, Mount Cano, whose last major eruption was in 1951. Its cone rises 9,281 feet (2,829 metres) above sea level. The peak of Mount Coroa on Santo Antão (Santo Antão Island) is 6,493 feet. São Tiago (São Tiago Island) and São Nicolau (São Nicolau Island) both have mountains more than 4,200 feet high. All the islands, especially the Windwards, have been eroded by sand carried by high winds, so that the outline of the landscape appears jagged.

      There are few watercourses that run all year, and even these do not reach their ends during the dry season. Dry watercourses fill up for several days during the short, intense rainy season. Rains tend to occur as torrential storms, causing severe soil erosion and great damage to agriculture. Groundwater is the primary source of domestic water supply. Some groundwater sources, however, are sulfurous; others, mainly on São Vicente and Boa Vista, are slightly salty due to the low water tables.

      Almost a quarter of the land area is rock of volcanic origin; basalt is a common type. More than 60 percent of the land is arid and lacking in humus and thus is suitable only for rough grazing. Sand and limestone outcrops are common in these areas. The remaining 15 percent is fertile; it contains alluvial deposits and is suitable for irrigation.

      Soil erosion has been one of Cape Verde's greatest problems. It began to have a serious effect in the early 19th century, attributable to overgrazing by goats. Since independence a nationwide campaign to prevent erosion has been under way, involving planting drought-resistant varieties of acacia trees (which now cover 7.5 percent of the land surface), building small dikes, and improving farming techniques.

Climate
      Moderate, stable temperatures and extreme aridity characterize the climate. February is the coolest month, with an average temperature of 71° F (22° C), and September is the warmest, having an average of 80° F (27° C). The islands are almost constantly under the influence of a dry northeast wind. Consequently there is almost no rainfall, except for a period from August through October, when an average of 1.6 inches (39 millimetres) a month is recorded. These rains can fail for years at a time.

Plant and animal life
      On islands higher than 1,000 feet, which includes most of the larger islands, elevations are great enough to generate rainfall on the windward slopes. Grasses and some pine plantations are found in these relatively moist locations. The leeward slopes, however, exhibit a characteristic rain shadow effect that produces desert conditions, and the sparse shrub cover almost disappears. The shrubs remaining in these areas are mostly thorny or bitter; some are toxic. A sea mist on the higher hills permits some agriculture, and irrigated valley bottoms are densely cultivated. Salt areas on Maio and Sal have interesting xerophilous plants.

      The scarcity of water limits the number of land turtles in the archipelago, but two species of sea turtles lay their eggs on the sandy shores of the uninhabited islets. There are many geckos, lizards, and several species of skinks. A species of giant skink is protected by law, but it may be extinct. There are 19 known species of butterflies, but none is endemic, and all the species are of African origin.

      There are 105 known species of birds, of which only 38 breed regularly, including four species of petrels and two of shearwaters. Other bird species include the greater flamingo, the frigate bird and the buzzard (both nearly exterminated), the Egyptian vulture, the Cape Verde Islands kite, and the red-billed tropic bird. Several other birds are represented by local species, of which the kingfisher is among the most conspicuous. The only truly endemic species, however, are the cane warbler and the Raso lark, which is restricted to Raso, one of the smallest uninhabited islets. The rest of the birds are overseas migrants. Remarkably, gulls and terns do not breed on the islands.

      Mammals of Cape Verde include the feral goats found on Fogo, the descendants of domestic goats that were brought to the islands. The islands' rodent population probably originated with rodents brought on early ships. The long-eared bat is the only indigenous mammal.

Settlement patterns
      The majority of the population is rural, living in small villages in fertile valleys or on the coast in fishing communities. Proximity to a water supply is the determining feature in settlement location. There are three urban centres: Praia, Mindelo, and the island of Sal (centred on the international airport at Espargos). Their continuing growth and development are based on good access to transportation networks.

The people
      The overwhelming majority of the islands' population is Creole (mulatto), the descendants of early contacts between Portuguese settlers and Africans brought as slaves to work on the plantations in the 16th century. Among the latter, Fulani (Fula) and Mandingo (Malinke) people from the region of Senegal, The Gambia, and Guinea-Bissau predominated.

      Although Portuguese (Portuguese language) is the official language and is used in formal situations and for most written material, Crioulo is the mother tongue of most people. It is one of the oldest of the Portuguese creole languages. Different dialects of Crioulo exist on the different islands.

      Most of the population is Roman Catholic, but a flourishing Protestant mission is based in Praia with a publishing venture in Fogo. Particularly in Sotavento, the celebration of Roman Catholic saints' days with drumming, dancing, and singing reveals the underlying African culture.

      The population growth rate of more than 2 percent per year is high by world standards but is relatively low for western Africa. A steady emigration of young males seeking employment abroad and one of the lowest birth rates in sub-Saharan Africa have been responsible for dampening Cape Verde's population growth. Life expectancy, at 60 years for males and 64 years for females, is the highest in western Africa.

      About half of the people live abroad as emigrant workers, often returning upon retirement. This trend began in the early 19th century with the arrival of American whaling ships that offered the opportunity for work and travel to the United States. Cape Verdeans still work on foreign merchant ships, and Boston, Mass., has a large immigrant community. During Portuguese rule, Cape Verdeans worked throughout the Portuguese empire as government officials and labourers. More recently, Portugal, The Netherlands, and France have become important destinations.

The economy
      The economy is mixed, with approximately half the national production generated by state-owned concerns. Agriculture absorbs most of the labour force, although small-scale industry and services together generate a larger share of the gross national product (GNP). The mainstays of the economy are the revenue from Amílcar Cabral International Airport on Sal, foreign aid, and emigrants' remittances. These enable the balance of payments to stay generally positive despite imports far exceeding exports. As a nonaligned nation, Cape Verde receives aid from a variety of sources. There is one state bank, the Banco de Cabo Verde. The currency is the Cape Verdean escudo.

Resources
      Cape Verde has few natural resources. The lack of fresh water is a problem. On São Vicente and Sal it is provided by desalination plants (which also generate electricity). Water is also obtained from springs, wells, and rainwater stored in cisterns. The country relies on imported oil for fuel. Fish are the major natural resource. Salt from Boa Vista, Maio, and Sal (meaning “Salt”) was once an important export. Pozzolana, a volcanic rock that is used in making cement, is exported.

Agriculture
      Bananas and coffee have been the chief agricultural exports. Crops grown for local consumption include corn (maize), sugarcane, castor beans, broad beans, potatoes, and peanuts (groundnuts). Severe and recurrent droughts affect the islands, causing unemployment and a dramatic fall in crop output. Deaths from starvation are a thing of the past, but there is a heavy reliance on imported foodstuffs. During the decade-long drought of the 1970s, 95 percent of food needs were met by imports.

Industry
      Small-scale industries such as textiles and pharmaceuticals play an increasingly important role in the economy. Fish processing is becoming well established. In 1981 a cold-storage plant was opened in Mindelo, and canning facilities exist. Tuna, shark, and lobster are important exports.

Transportation
      There are international air services from Sal to Lisbon, Boston, Moscow, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, and Brazil. Within the islands, regular ferries and planes provide local service. All the islands except Brava have airports. With the exception of São Tiago the road networks are limited. There is a small national shipping line and a national airline, Transportes Aéreos de Cabo Verde (TACV). Ship repairing is carried out in Mindelo, where dry docks accommodate vessels of up to 2,800 tons deadweight.

Administration and social conditions

Government
      After independence in 1975, the African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV) was the only legal political party in the country until a multiparty system was introduced in 1990. A constitution, promulgated in 1992 and subsequently revised in 1995 and 1999, established the president as head of state, elected by universal adult suffrage. The president, in consultation with the popularly elected National Assembly, appoints the prime minister. The prime minister then recommends members of the National Assembly to the president for appointment to the Council of Ministers. At the local level of government, councils are also elected by universal adult suffrage. There is a Constitutional Court and a Supreme Court of Justice, which is the highest court and oversees a network of courts at the local level.

Education
      According to official policy, primary education is compulsory for six years. Secondary schooling is provided by four liceus and two industrial and commercial schools. There are three teacher-training schools as well. The islands have no university. A government effort to build schools and train teachers to combat illiteracy has proven effective, and about three-quarters of the adult population is now literate.

Health and welfare
      A major health problem is diarrhea in infants, caused by poor hygiene. There are isolated cases of malaria on São Tiago and leprosy on Fogo. The Ministry of Health is responsible for a network of locally run hospitals and health centres. A mother and child protection program has operated since 1977 with preventive medicine as a priority. Successful vaccination campaigns have reached 90 percent of the children. The infant mortality rate, while still high by world standards, is significantly lower than those of other western African countries.

Cultural life
      Portuguese customs and culture have influenced the islands, but they are blended with African traditions as well. Popular culture demonstrates the African heritage. There is a rich body of oral narratives. Popular characters in these stories are Ti Lobo and Chibinho (“Uncle Wolf and Nephew”). Improvised singing is a feature of social gatherings and festivities. The melancholic morna, expressing the sorrows of emigration and love, is a song form unique to Cape Verde.

      Since the late 19th century, Cape Verde has produced some outstanding writers and poets. Between 1936 and 1960 the cultural magazine Claridade (“Clarity”) was the focus for an artistic movement that marked a break with Portuguese literary traditions and established a Cape Verdean identity. Baltasar Lopes da Silva (Lopes, Baltasar), who used the pseudonym Osvaldo Alcântara for his poetry, is a key figure from this period. Later writers have extended the movement's interest in the Creole culture to use Crioulo as well as Portuguese. Corsino Fortes is the best-known poet of this later generation.

      One television channel and two government radio stations broadcast in Portuguese and Crioulo. A weekly government newspaper, Voz di Povo (“Voice of the People”), is published in Praia. Foreign publications circulate freely, as do local magazines. There is a publishing house, the Cape Verdean Institute of Books, which specializes in works on Cape Verdean history and culture.

History
      There is no evidence of the islands having been inhabited prior to the arrival of the Portuguese, but it is thought that the Moors had visited Sal to collect salt supplies in previous centuries. In 1460 the Portuguese navigators Diogo Gomes and António de Noli sighted Maio and São Tiago. In 1462 the first settlers from Portugal landed on São Tiago, subsequently founding there the oldest European city in the tropics—Ribeira Grande (now Cidade Velha). Sugar was planted in an attempt to emulate the success of the earlier settlement of Madeira. Cape Verde's dry climate was less favourable, but, with the development of transatlantic slave trade, the importance and the wealth of the islands increased. In 1532 the first bishop was consecrated. The prosperity of Ribeira Grande, however, attracted pirates, who attacked the city in 1541. The English later attacked it twice—in 1585 and 1592—the first time under the command of Sir Francis Drake. After a French attack in 1712, the city was abandoned. Portugal attempted to administer its possessions and commerce on the African coast through the islands. Until the 19th century, trade was controlled through the crown-issued monopoly contracts. English, French, and Dutch activity in the area meant, however, that the crown was never really able to enforce its edicts. Smuggling was rife.

      From the 17th to the 19th century, Cape Verde was famous for its woven cotton cloth (panos). Cotton grew easily, and indigo produced a rich blue dye. The skill of narrow-loom weaving had come with the slaves from the western African coast. The cloths were a valuable form of currency for the slave trade on the mainland.

      With the decline of the slave trade (which was finally abolished in 1876) and with increasing drought, the prosperity of the islands slowly vanished. In the early 1800s, they experienced recurrent drought and famine as well as government corruption and maladministration. Conditions improved toward the end of the 1800s, with the establishment at Mindelo of a coaling station and a submarine cable station. After World War I, prosperity again declined as fewer ships visited Mindelo. The colonial administration encouraged emigration to the cocoa plantations of São Tomé and Princípe.

      The Portuguese administration of Cape Verde was unified under a governor in 1587. The status of the islands was changed in 1951 from that of a colony to an overseas province. In 1961 all of the citizens were given full Portuguese citizenship.

      During the war for independence from Portugal (1961–75) fought by its colonies in Africa, Cape Verde was used as a garrison by the Portuguese army. Some Cape Verdeans fled to Guinea-Bissau to join the African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde (PAIGC), under the leadership of Amílcar Cabral.

      On July 5, 1975, Cape Verde was granted independence from Portugal. The secretary general of the PAIGC, Aristides Pereira, became the first president of the new independent republic. Disapproval of the 1980 coup in Guinea-Bissau prompted the dissolution of the Cape Verde branch of PAIGC and resulted in the formation of the African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV) in 1981. President Pereira was reelected in February of the same year. In 1990 a multiparty system was established, and Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro of the Movement for Democracy (MpD) became president in 1991 elections. Cape Verde affirmed its nonaligned status and was able to seek foreign aid from several sources to salvage its economy and to fund development; the country also focused on economic expansion. To that end, the government enacted policies to privatize state-owned companies and attract foreign investors in the early 1990s.

      Monteiro ran unopposed in 1996 and was duly reelected. During his tenure, the country continued to experience economic struggles and both the MpD and the PAICV held the troubled economy to be their primary concern. During the legislative and presidential elections of 2001, the PAICV was returned to power, with Pedro Pires narrowly winning the presidential race. That same year, food shortages—a common predicament for the country—worsened considerably, and the government relied heavily on foreign aid and food imports to feed the country.

      The poverty and high rates of unemployment that plagued Cape Verde in the 1990s continued into the 2000s, even as the government made strides in reaching economic goals. In the 21st century, the country continued to successfully pursue political and economic relationships around the globe, courting foreign investors and creating and maintaining diplomatic ties in the international community.

W. Mary Bannerman Caroline Sarah Shaw Ed.

Additional Reading
António Costa, Cabo Verde, 2 vol. (1980–81), is an overview of the islands' geography and natural history. Colm Foy, Cape Verde (1988), provides information on the postindependence nation. Deirdre Meintel, Race, Culture, and Portuguese Colonialism in Cabo Verde (1984), analyzes social structures and the role of race. António Carreira, The People of the Cape Verde Islands, trans. from Portuguese (1982), is a history of emigration. Manuel Ferreira, A aventura crioula, 3rd ed. rev. (1985), studies cultural life and has an extensive bibliography. Charles Verlinden, António de Noli e a colonização das ilhas de Cabo Verde (1963), discusses the period of discovery and settlement; and T. Bentley Duncan, Atlantic Islands (1972), includes a general history of 17th-century commerce. Richard Lobban and Marilyn Halter, Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cape Verde, 2nd ed. (1988), is a useful reference. Joseph M. McCarthy, Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde Islands (1977), provides a comprehensive bibliography.Caroline Sarah Shaw

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Universalium. 2010.

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