Campeche


Campeche
/kahm pe"che/, n.
1. a state in SE Mexico, on the peninsula of Yucatán. 337,000; 19,672 sq. mi. (50,950 sq. km).
2. a seaport in and the capital of this state. 69,506.
3. Gulf of, the SW part of the Gulf of Mexico.

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I
City (pop., 2000: 190,813), capital of Campeche state, Mexico.

The Spanish town was founded in 1540 on the site of a Mayan village, the remains of which are still visible. It became the capital of the newly created Campeche state in 1863. It is a service centre for offshore oil drilling facilities.
II
State (pop., 2000: 690,689), southeastern Mexico.

Covering 19,619 sq mi (50,812 sq km), its capital is Campeche. Located on the Yucatán Peninsula, it is bounded by the Gulf of Mexico. Named for the ancient Mayan province of Kimpech (Campech), it comprises much of the western part of the peninsula. Rivers in the southern part drain into Términos Lagoon, at whose gulf entrance is the area's chief depot, Ciudad del Carmen. Forest products and commercial fishing are important to the economy.

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Mexico
 city, port on the Gulf of Mexico (Mexico, Gulf of), and capital of Campeche estado (state), southeastern Mexico. It lies on the Yucatán Peninsula at the western end of a fertile plain in a natural amphitheatre formed by hills overlooking the Bay of Campeche (Campeche, Bay of). The Spanish town was founded in 1540 on the site of a Mayan village (Kimpech), the remains of which are still visible. Pirates frequently raided Campeche and razed it in 1663, slaughtering its residents, but trade flourished again after the Spanish rebuilt it as a walled city. In the 18th century, Campeche was one of three ports on the gulf and thrived on its monopoly of Yucatán Peninsula trade, mainly exports of dyewood and salt. At various times in the early 19th century, it was the capital of Yucatán; it was made capital of the newly created Campeche state in 1863. The historic city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1999.

      Campeche still processes and exports regional agricultural products (notably cotton, rice, sugarcane, tropical fruits, and tobacco), but its economy is now based mainly on services (including government administration, tourism, and retail trade) and logistic support for offshore petroleum extraction and processing. Tourists are attracted by the city's colonial churches, 17th- and 18th-century fortifications, and access to two Mayan ruins: Edzná, some 30 miles (50 km) southeast, and the gulf island of Jaina, where hundreds of burials have been excavated in a large Mayan necropolis. Campeche is linked by railroad, highway, and air to Mérida and other major cities. It is the site of the Regional Museum of Campeche (founded 1985) and the Autonomous University of Campeche (1756; refounded 1965). Pop. (2000) 190,813.

  estado (state), southeastern Mexico, on the western part of the Yucatán Peninsula. It is bounded to the north and east by the state of Yucatán, to the east by the state of Quintana Roo, (Quintana Roo) to the south by Guatemala, to the southwest by the state of Tabasco, and to the west by the Bay of Campeche (Campeche, Bay of), an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico (Mexico, Gulf of). Campeche city is the state capital and a major port.

      Named for the ancient Mayan (Maya) province of Kimpech, Campeche includes numerous ruined Mayan cities, such as Calakmul, Uxul, and Xicalango. The capital's fortified colonial-era centre and the ruins of Calakmul were designated UNESCO World Heritage sites (World Heritage site) in 1999 and 2002, respectively.

      The state's relief consists of a low limestone plain broken only by rivers in the humid south and by the Puuc hills in the arid north, where deep grottoes hold the main water supply for crops and livestock raising. Stands of tropical semi-deciduous forest lie east and south of Campeche city; treetops can reach heights of 65 to 100 feet (20 to 30 metres), notably at Calakmul Biosphere Reserve. Most of the rivers in the south, including the Golondrinas-Candelaria system, drain into Términos Lagoon on the Gulf of Mexico (Mexico, Gulf of). At the lagoon's entrance is Ciudad del Carmen, the chief port and petroleum depot of the area.

      Manufacturing provides one-third of the state's income, and services (including tourism, trade, and government jobs) account for more than one-fourth. Major manufactures include refined petroleum, extracted from offshore wells; forest products, made mostly from local hardwoods; and processed foods. Shrimp trawling and other commercial fishing are also important. The state is linked to central Mexico by railroad, highway, and air. Although the great majority of its population is urbanized, Campeche is sparsely settled and one of the least-populous Mexican states.

      Campeche seceded in 1857 from the state of Yucatán after a civil war. It became a state in 1862 and originally included the region that is now Quintana Roo. The executive branch of state government is led by a governor, who is elected to a single term of six years. Members of the unicameral legislature, the State Congress, are elected to three-year terms. Campeche is divided into local governmental units called municipios (municipalities), each of which is headquartered in a prominent city, town, or village. The capital city is home to most of the state's cultural institutions, including the Museum of Mayan Archaeology and the Autonomous University of Campeche (1756; refounded 1965). The Autonomous University of Carmen (1967) is in Ciudad del Carmen. Area 19,619 square miles (50,812 square km). Pop. (2000) 690,689; (2005) 754,730.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Campeche — is the name of both a state in Mexico and its capital city. This article is about the state. For the city, see: Campeche, Campeche; for the Puerto Rican artist, see José Campeche. Infobox Settlement name = State of Campeche other name = native… …   Wikipedia

  • campêche — [ kɑ̃pɛʃ ] n. m. • 1603; nom d une ville du Mexique ♦ Arbre de l Amérique tropicale (césalpinées) qui fournit un bois dur et compact renfermant une matière colorante rouge. Bois de campêche ou bois noir, bois d Inde. ● campêche nom masculin (de… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Campeche — • Diocese in the State of Campeche, Republic of Mexico, suffragan of the Archdiocese of Yucatan Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Campeche     Campeche      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Campêche — Campeche Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Le terme Campeche peut se référer à :  Brésil Campeche, un district de la ville de Florianópolis; la praia do Campeche …   Wikipédia en Français

  • campeche — (De Campeche, ciudad de México). ☛ V. palo campeche, palo de Campeche …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • Campeche — (spr. Kampäsch, San Francisco de C.), Stadt auf der WKüste des mexicanischen Staates Yucatan (NAmerika), an der Mündung des Rio de San Francisco in die Campeche Bai; sehr guter Hafen, aber wenig geschützt, weshalb die Schiffe in einiger… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Campeche — [kam pē′chē; ] Sp [ käm pe′che] 1. state of SE Mexico, in the W Yucatán Peninsula: 20,013 sq mi (51,833 sq km); pop. 535,000 2. capital of this state, a port on the Gulf of Campeche: pop. 174,000 3. Gulf ( or Bay) of 4. Gulf of arm of the Gulf of …   English World dictionary

  • Campeche — (spr. pētsche), mexikan. Staat, im SW. der Halbinsel Yucatan (s. Karte »Mexiko«), 46,855 qkm und (1900) 84,281 Einw. (großenteils Maya Indianer) umfassend, ist vorwiegend niedriges Flachland, bloß im Innern treten einzelne Hügelzüge auf. Die von… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Campeche — (spr. pehtsche), Staat der Republik Mexiko, im W. der Halbinsel Yucatan, 46.855 qkm, (1900) 86.542 E. – Hauptstadt (San Francisco de) C., Haupthafen des Staates, an der Mündung des Rio de San Francisco in die Campechebai des Mexik. Golfs, 17.109… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Campeche — (Kampetsche), feste Stadt auf der mexican. Halbinsel Yucatan, mit 26000 E., gutem Hafen und beträchtlichem Seehandel, besonders mit Campecheholz; das Trinkwasser muß aus der Umgegend herbeigeschafft werden …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon


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