Camisard


Camisard
/kam"euh zahrd', kam'euh zahrd"/; Fr. /kann mee zannrdd"/, n.
any French Protestant, living in the region of the Cévennes Mountains, who carried on a revolt against Louis XIV in the early part of the 18th century.
[1695-1705; < F, equiv. to camis- ( < Pr camisa shirt; see CHEMISE) + -ard -ARD]

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▪ French Protestant militants
      any of the Protestant militants of the Bas-Languedoc and Cévennes regions of southern France who, in the early 18th century, organized an armed insurrection in opposition to Louis XIV's persecution of Protestantism. Camisards were so called probably because of the white shirts (Languedocian camisa, French chemise) that they wore to recognize one another in night fighting.

      Having ended religious toleration by revoking the Edict of Nantes in 1685, Louis sought to impose Roman Catholicism on all his subjects. Thousands of Protestants emigrated; those who remained were subjected to severe repression. In the first years of the 18th century, a wave of religious enthusiasm swept the strongly Protestant Cévennes. Prophets predicted the end of persecution, and many felt the time had come to destroy the Catholics. The murder (July 1702) of the Abbé du Chayla, who was considered a harsh Catholic persecutor, marked the start of the rebellion. The program of the Camisards was to sack and burn churches and drive off or even kill priests. The movement's offensives were conducted by popular leaders: Jean Cavalier was a baker's apprentice; Pierre Laporte, called Rolland, a sheep gelder. The Camisards fought successfully, even to the point of holding royal armies in check. Their tactics of ambush and night attacks, their knowledge of the mountains in which they operated, and the support of the local populace all were factors in their favour.

      In response the government adopted a policy of extermination: hundreds of villages were burned and their populations massacred. In 1704 negotiations failed because the government was willing to grant amnesty but not religious toleration for the Protestants. These terms were rejected by most of the Camisards, and the war continued. By 1705, with many of the Camisard leaders captured and executed, the revolt lost its force. Sporadic fighting continued until 1710, and the royal government's attempts to stamp out Protestantism in the area continued throughout the first half of the 18th century.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • camisard — [ kamizar ] n. m. • 1688; de l occitan camiso « chemise » ♦ Hist. Calviniste cévenol insurgé, durant les persécutions qui suivirent la révocation de l Édit de Nantes. Les camisards doivent leur nom à la chemise blanche qu ils portaient par dessus …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Camisard — Les Camisards étaient des protestants français (Huguenots) de la région des Cévennes, en France, qui ont mené une insurrection contre les persécutions qui ont suivi l Édit de Fontainebleau en 1685. La Guerre des Cévennes éclate en 1702, avec les… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Camisard — Cam i*sard, n. [F.] One of the French Protestant insurgents who rebelled against Louis XIV, after the revocation of the edict of Nates; so called from the peasant s smock (camise) which they wore. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • camisard — CAMISARD. sub. mas. Nom qu on donnoit à certains Fanatiques des Cévennes …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • Camisard — Jean Cavalier, jefe camisard, en un óleo de Pierre Antoine Labouchère (1864). Los Camisards fueron Protestantes (Hugonotes) franceses de la región aislada y accidentada de Cevenas del centrosur de Francia, que levantaron una insurrección contra… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Camisard — Camisards were French Protestants (Huguenots) of the rugged and isolated Cevennes region of south central France, who raised an insurrection against the persecutions which followed the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. The revolt by the… …   Wikipedia

  • CAMISARD — s. m. Nom qui fut donné aux calvinistes des Cévennes, pendant leur révolte sous Louis XIV …   Dictionnaire de l'Academie Francaise, 7eme edition (1835)

  • camisard — (ka mi zar ; le d ne se lie pas ; au pluriel l s ne se lie pas : les ka mi zar insurgés ; d autres la lient : les ka mi zar z insurgés) s. m. Nom donné aux calvinistes insurgés des Cévennes, pendant la persécution qui suivit la révocation de l… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • Camisard — n. French Protestant rebel who who rebelled against Louis the fourteenth in the early 18th century …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Camisard — [ kamɪsα:, ˌkamɪ sα:] noun a member of the French Protestant insurgents who rebelled against the persecution that followed the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Origin Fr., from Provençal camisa, from late L. camisia shirt , because of the… …   English new terms dictionary


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