Cambridge


Cambridge
/kaym"brij/, n.
1. a city in Cambridgeshire, in E England: famous university founded in 12th century. 103,900.
2. a city in E Massachusetts, near Boston. 95,322.
3. Cambridgeshire.
4. a city in SE Ontario, in S Canada. 77,183.
5. a city in E Ohio. 13,573.

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I
City (pop., 2000: 101,355), northeastern Massachusetts, U.S. Adjacent to Boston, it was founded in 1630 as one of the Massachusetts Bay Colony settlements.

The first American institution of higher learning, Harvard College (see Harvard University), was founded here in 1636. George Washington took command of the Continental Forces at what is now Cambridge Common in 1775. In the 19th century it was the home of such literary leaders as Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, and Oliver Wendell Holmes. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology moved to Cambridge from Boston in 1916.
II
City and administrative district (pop., 2001: 108,878), eastern England.

It is the county seat of Cambridgeshire. Cambridge lies on the River Cam, a tributary of the Ouse, north of London. Originally a fording site, Cambridge possesses earthworks and Roman remains. Two monastic foundations date from the 11th–12th centuries. Cambridge received its first charter in 1207. It is best known as the site of the University of Cambridge, noted for its educational excellence and outstanding architecture. The city's economy is linked to the university and its research and development services.

Corpus Christi College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge.

Shostal
III
(as used in expressions)
Baron Adrian of Cambridge
Cambridge University of

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 city (district), administrative and historic county of Cambridgeshire, England, home of the internationally known University of Cambridge. The city lies immediately south of the fen country (a flat alluvial region only slightly above sea level) and is itself only 20 to 80 feet (6 to 24 metres) above sea level. Most of the city is built on the east bank of the River Cam, a tributary of the Ouse. Suburbs extend across the river, but modern development to the west has been largely restricted to university expansion.

      Originally a fording place, Cambridge possesses earthworks, including Castle Hill, and Roman remains. Later there was another settlement at Market Hill. Two monastic foundations date from the 11th and 12th centuries, respectively—Barnwell Priory and a Benedictine nunnery, replaced in 1496 by Jesus College.

      Cambridge received its first charter in 1207; the uninterrupted existence of public officers in the city since the Middle Ages is noteworthy. It also has an interesting guild history, Corpus Christi College having been founded by guilds in 1352.

      Modern Cambridge has been described as “perhaps the only true university town in England.” University (Cambridge, University of) and college buildings provide nearly all the outstanding architectural features. The beauty of the city is enhanced by many commons and other open spaces, including Jesus Green and Midsummer Common, Sheep's Green, Lammas Land, Christ's Pieces, Parker's Piece, the University Botanic Gardens (much developed, extended, and improved), and the Backs. The Backs are the landscaped lawns and gardens through which the River Cam winds behind the main line of colleges, including Queens', King's, Clare, Trinity, St. John's, and Magdalene, and under a series of magnificent bridges, of which the Bridge of Sighs (St. John's, 1827–31), the stone bridge of Clare with thick stone balls on the parapets (1638–40), and the so-called “Mathematical Bridge” of Queens' are among the best known. East of the River Cam is King's Parade, a street where the 15th-century Church of St. Mary the Great and a line of attractive shops face King's College with its chapel and the university Senate House (built between 1722 and 1730 from designs by James Gibbs). King's College Chapel (1446–1515), the best-known building in Cambridge, was designed by Henry VI as part of an immense and never fully realized conception. Great buttresses, lofty spires and turrets, a high vaulted roof, heraldic devices, and magnificent stained-glass windows are among the notable features of the chapel.

      Other noteworthy churches in the city include St. Benet's with its Saxon tower, the restored Norman Holy Sepulchre Church (one of only four round churches in England), and St. Edward's Church. The Fitzwilliam Museum (q.v.; 1837–41) is located in Trumpington Street, a continuation of King's Parade. West of the river is the red brick University Library (1931–34). The Cambridge and County Folk Museum is situated near Magdalene College in Castle Street.

      Cambridge has good rail and road access to London, about 60 miles (95 km) south. During the medieval period the River Cam was extensively used for water transport, the local wharfing facilities (which have gradually disappeared) being in heavy demand during the annual period of Stourbridge Fair. Today the Cam is extensively used for pleasure boating, punting, and canoeing.

      Cambridge industry is extensive but, from the city centre, is unobtrusive. It includes industries that have depended to a considerable extent on university and college connections and orders, as diverse as building, printing, and instrument making, and includes others that have also had close links, such as electronics. Flour milling, asphalt manufacture, and cement making have also been important. Several of the large new and secondhand bookshops enjoy international reputations, and there are numerous establishments specializing in the sale of antiques. Area 16 square miles (41 square km). Pop. (2004 est.) 118,500.

      city, seat (1686) of Dorchester county, eastern Maryland, U.S., on the Choptank River's south bank near Chesapeake Bay's eastern shore. Bisected by Cambridge Creek (a natural harbour), it was founded in 1684 as a plantation port and named in 1686 for the English university town. For more than two centuries it handled small coastwise traffic, but the addition of deepwater facilities and the completion in 1964 of the Marine Terminal opened the city to world commerce. Serious civil rights disturbances took place in Cambridge in the summer of 1963, which led to the presence of National Guard troops there for nearly a year.

      Food processing (including seafood) and light manufacturing (electronic circuit breakers, conveyor belts, environmental safety equipment, and custom injection moulding) are among its economic assets. Meredith House (1760) is in the city; Old Trinity Church (1675, restored 1960) and other colonial landmarks are nearby. The Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge is 10 miles (16 km) south. Inc. town, 1793; city, 1884. Pop. (1990) 11,514; (2000) 10,911.

      city, Middlesex county, eastern Massachusetts, U.S., situated on the north bank of the Charles River, partly opposite Boston. Originally settled as New Towne in 1630 by the Massachusetts Bay Company, it was organized as a town in 1636 when it became the site of Harvard College (now an undergraduate school of Harvard University). The town was renamed for Cambridge, England, in 1638 and became a county seat in 1643. The old part of Cambridge (around Harvard Square) is regarded as a symbol of American culture and history. It was there that the general synods of the New England churches met in 1637 and 1647 to settle disputed points of doctrine and, from there, that the Reverend Thomas Hooker (Hooker, Thomas)'s congregation departed for Connecticut in 1636. At the outbreak of the American Revolution, the first American army camped at what is now Cambridge Common, where George Washington assumed leadership of the Continental forces on July 3, 1775. The first Massachusetts Constitutional Convention met in Cambridge in 1779–80.

      Early industrial development was slow. Stephen Day (Daye) (Day, Stephen) set up the first printing press in the British colonies at Cambridge in 1638 (forerunner of the city's modern publishing and printing industry), and the first books to be printed in America came from this press. After completion (1912) of subway connections to Boston, the city experienced rapid industrial expansion. Most manufacturing industries had declined in importance by the late 20th century, but they were replaced by firms developing computer software, electronics, and biotechnology. Photographic equipment and other light manufactures are produced, but services predominate. Institutes of higher education are the largest employers.

      Scientific and industrial research is stimulated by the presence of Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (founded in Boston in 1861 and moved to Cambridge in 1916). Cambridge is also the seat of Radcliffe College (1879; now integrated with Harvard), Lesley College (1909), and the Episcopal Divinity School (1867). The headquarters of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, formerly in Washington, D.C., was moved to Cambridge in 1955; it is now part of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

      Cambridge has been home to many notable people, and its Mount Auburn Cemetery contains the graves of the poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth); the poet-diplomat James Russell Lowell (Lowell, James Russell); the physician-author Oliver Wendell Holmes (Holmes, Oliver Wendell); Mary Baker Eddy (Mars), the founder of Christian Science; and the actor Edwin Booth (Booth, Edwin). The Longfellow House (built 1759) served as Washington's headquarters (1775–76), was Longfellow's home (1837–82), and has been designated Longfellow National Historic Site.

      The city's population reached a peak of 120,740 in 1950 but then entered a period of decline; this was attributed to the movement of people and industry to farther suburbs. Partly owing to the growth of high-technology companies, the population stabilized in the 1980s and early '90s. One-fourth of city residents are college students. Inc. city, 1846. Pop. (1990) 95,802; (2000) 101,355.

      city, regional municipality of Waterloo, southeastern Ontario, Canada. It lies 55 miles (90 km) west-southwest of Toronto. Cambridge was created in 1973 from the consolidation of the city of Galt, the towns of Hespeler and Preston, and parts of the townships of Waterloo and North Dumfries. Galt was founded about 1817 and, along with Dumfries Township, became the home of large numbers of Scottish immigrants. Hespeler and Preston were settled in the early 1800s, largely by Mennonites from Pennsylvania. These settlements developed primarily as milling towns, producing flour, lumber, and textiles. Hespeler also became a quarrying centre, and sulfur springs at Preston made the town a well-known health resort. All later developed heavy-metal and machine industries. The city of Cambridge lies in one of Ontario's most heavily industrialized areas and produces a variety of manufactured goods. Pop. (2006) 120,371.

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Universalium. 2010.

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