Calais


Calais
/kal"ay, ka lay", kal"is/; Fr. /kann le"/, n.
a seaport in N France, on the Strait of Dover: the French port nearest England. 79,369.
/keuh lay"is/, n. Class. Myth.
the winged son of Boreas the north wind. As Argonauts he and his brother Zetes chased away the Harpies.
Also, Kalais.

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Seaport (pop., 1999: 77,333) on the Strait of Dover, northern France.

Originally a fishing village built on an island, it was improved by the count of Flanders in 997 and fortified by the count of Boulogne in 1224. Calais was taken in 1347 by Edward III of England, and after 1450 it was the only remaining English possession in France. The 2nd duke de Guise took Calais from the English in 1558. In World War II it was a main objective in the German drive to the sea in 1940. It is an important passenger port and is near the French terminus of the Channel Tunnel. The city is famous for its lace and embroideries.

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France
      industrial seaport on the Strait of Dover, Pas-de-Calais département, Nord-Pas-de-Calais région, northern France, 21 miles (34 km) by sea from Dover (the shortest crossing from England). On an island, now bordered by canals and harbour basins, Calais originated as a fishing village. It was improved by the count of Flanders in 997 and was fortified by the count of Boulogne in 1224. After the Battle of Crécy (Crécy, Battle of), it withstood an English siege for almost a year (1346) until it was starved out. Six burghers of the town offered themselves as hostages to the English in exchange for lifting the siege. The episode is commemorated by Auguste Rodin (Rodin, Auguste)'s statuary group, which depicts the anguish of the burghers as they leave the city to face their deaths; however, their lives were spared.

      François de Lorraine, 2nd duke (duc) de Guise, took the town from the English in 1558, and the region (Calaisis) became known as the Pays Reconquis (“Reconquered Country”). Occupied by the Spanish (1596–98), it was returned to France by the Treaty of Vervins. A part of Napoleon's army for the invasion of England camped there in 1805. During World War II, Calais was a main objective in the German drive to the sea in May 1940; for three months before its liberation (September 1944), it was a base for launching German flying bombs against Britain. Although the old town around the citadel (1560) was demolished, and the industrial zone of Saint-Pierre to the south was badly damaged, the rebuilt town still has its 13th-century watchtower.

      Despite competition from the Channel Tunnel, opened in 1994, Calais remains a major cross-Channel port. Its roll-on/roll-off facilities handle millions of passengers (and their vehicles) each year, as well as a large volume of freight. Calais is France's leading passenger port and one of the largest in terms of the weight of cargo handled. The Channel Tunnel, situated to the west of Calais, has less traffic but is the centre of a large commercial and transport complex. Eurotunnel, the tunnel's operator, is now the region's leading employer. Calais has a long tradition in lacemaking; although this industry still exists, its importance has much diminished. Other industries include metalworking, food processing, and the manufacture of textiles, machinery, electrical products, and pharmaceuticals. Calais is also a university town. Pop. (1999) 77,333; (2005 est.) 74,200.

      city, Washington county, eastern Maine, U.S., on the St. Croix River (Saint Croix River) (there spanned by an international bridge to St. Stephen, New Brunswick, Canada), 98 miles (158 km) east-northeast of Bangor. The river is noted for its tidal surges, which can vary by 28 feet (9 metres). Settlers were attracted to the area in 1779 by the abundance of natural resources. The community developed as a lumbering centre; after 1801 shipbuilding was the most important industry. It was incorporated as a town in 1809 and named for Calais, France, in appreciation for aid given during the American Revolution. The manufacture of wood products remains the economic mainstay; blueberries are harvested locally. Nearby are Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge and St. Croix Island International Historic Site; the latter marks the location where the French explorers Samuel de Champlain (Champlain, Samuel de) and Pierre du Guast, sieur (lord) de Monts, attempted to establish a settlement in 1604. Inc. city, 1850. Pop. (1990) 3,963; (2000) 3,447.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Calais — Calais …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • CALAIS — Sous préfecture du Pas de Calais, la ville de Calais était, avec 75 309 habitants lors du recensement de 1990, la plus peuplée du département (agglomération: 101 768 hab.). Port de mer situé au nord du cap Blanc Nez, au débouché de plusieurs… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Calais — Calais, 1) (spr. lǟ) Seestadt im franz. Depart. Pasde Calais, Arrond. Boulogne, liegt in einer Entfernung von 37 km Dover gegenüber, nahe der schmälsten Stelle des Kanals (Pas de C.), an dem hier mündenden Schiffahrtskanal von C. (von der Aa nach …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Calais — ? Calais …   Википедия

  • Calais — Calais, Stadt im französischen Departement gleiches Namens, liegt am äußersten Punkte der Nordküste von Frankreich und den Küsten Englands am nächsten. Calais hat nur 9000 Einwohner, ist aber ungemein belebt durch die aus England kommenden oder… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • Calais — Calais, 1) Souspräfectur im französischen Departement Pas de Calais; 2) Stadt u. Festung daselbst, im Arrondissement Boulogne, an der schmalsten Stelle des Kanals (La Manche, Pas de Calais), der hier nur 7 Stunden breit ist (Überfahrt nach… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • CALAIS — Boreae ex Orithyia filius alatus, qui una cum Zethe fratre similiter alato cum Argonautis Colchos profectus est. Qua in expeditione cum a Phineo Rege humaniter eslent accepti, Harpyias, quae epulas eius foedabant, persequi constituerunt: quas cum …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Calais — Calais, ME U.S. city in Maine Population (2000): 3447 Housing Units (2000): 1921 Land area (2000): 34.043047 sq. miles (88.171082 sq. km) Water area (2000): 5.980995 sq. miles (15.490704 sq. km) Total area (2000): 40.024042 sq. miles (103.661786… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Calais, ME — U.S. city in Maine Population (2000): 3447 Housing Units (2000): 1921 Land area (2000): 34.043047 sq. miles (88.171082 sq. km) Water area (2000): 5.980995 sq. miles (15.490704 sq. km) Total area (2000): 40.024042 sq. miles (103.661786 sq. km)… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Calais — (Calä), franz. Festung und Hafenstadt im Depart. des Pas de Calais, welche Meerenge hier nur 7 Stdn. breit ist, daher hier die kürzeste Ueberfahrt nach der engl. Küste. C. hat 11000 E., einen seichten, nicht ganz sicheren Hafen, ein Hauptzollamt …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon


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