butadiene


butadiene
/byooh'teuh duy"een, -duy een"/, n. Chem.
a colorless, flammable gas, C4H6, soluble in alcohol but not in water, usually derived from butane or butene: used chiefly in the manufacture of rubber and paint, and in organic synthesis. Also called bivinyl, vinylethylene.
[1895-1900; BUTA(NE) + DI-1 + -ENE]

* * *

      either of two aliphatic organic compounds that have the formula C4H6. The term ordinarily signifies the more important of the two, 1,3-butadiene, which is the major constituent of many synthetic rubbers (rubber). It was first manufactured in Germany during World War I from acetylene. During World War II, butenes from petroleum and natural gas were the raw material for 60 percent of American butadiene production, ethyl alcohol for the rest. Butadiene rubber has now completely displaced natural rubber in the manufacture of automobile tires. Nearly all butadiene is made by dehydrogenation of butane or butenes or by high-temperature cracking (breaking up of large molecules) of petroleum distillates.

      The 1,3-butadiene is the simplest member of the series of conjugated dienes, which contain the structure C=C−C=C, the C being carbon. The wide variety of chemical reactions peculiar to this system makes butadiene important in chemical synthesis. Under the influence of catalysts, butadiene molecules combine with each other or with other reactive molecules, as acrylonitrile or styrene, to form elastic, rubberlike materials. In uncatalyzed reactions with reactive unsaturated compounds, such as maleic anhydride, butadiene undergoes the Diels-Alder reaction, forming cyclohexene derivatives. Butadiene is attacked by the numerous substances that react with ordinary olefins, but the reactions often involve both double bonds (e.g., addition of chlorine yields both 3,4-dichloro-1-butene and 1,4-dichloro-2-butene).

      At atmospheric conditions, 1,3-butadiene exists as a colourless gas, but it is liquefied either by cooling to -4.4° C (24.1° F) or by compressing to 2.8 atmospheres at 25° C (77° F).

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • butadiène — [ bytadjɛn ] n. m. • 1912; de buta(ne) et di(éthyl)ène ♦ Chim. Hydrocarbure éthylénique employé dans la fabrication du caoutchouc synthétique (⇒ buna). ● butadiène nom masculin Hydrocarbure diénique C4H6. (L isomère 1,3 est utilisé pour fabriquer …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • butadiene — utadiene n. a gaseous hydrocarbon {C4H6}; it is used as a monomer unit in making synthetic rubbers. [WordNet 1.5] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • butadiene — [byo͞ot΄ə dī′ēn, byo͞ot΄ədī ēn′] n. [< BUTANE + DI 1 + ENE] a highly reactive hydrocarbon, H2C:CHHC:CH2, obtained from petroleum and used to make synthetic rubbers and resins …   English World dictionary

  • Butadiene — Buta 1,3 diène Buta 1,3 diène formule développée et modèle 3D du butadiène …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Butadiène — Buta 1,3 diène Buta 1,3 diène formule développée et modèle 3D du butadiène …   Wikipédia en Français

  • butadiene — noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary butane + di + ene Date: 1900 a flammable gaseous open chain hydrocarbon C4H6 used in making synthetic rubbers …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • butadiene — noun An unsaturated hydrocarbon, CH=CH CH=CH; it is obtained from petroleum and is used in the preparation of the synthetic rubber polybutadiene …   Wiktionary

  • butadiene — bu·ta·di·è·ne s.m. TS chim. idrocarburo della serie dei dieni a quattro atomi di carbonio, ricavato dall etanolo, dal butano o dall acetilene, usato spec. nella produzione di gomme sintetiche Sinonimi: eritrene. {{line}} {{/line}} DATA: 1955.… …   Dizionario italiano

  • butadiene — {{hw}}{{butadiene}}{{/hw}}s. m. Idrocarburo gassoso che, polimerizzato, fornisce gomme sintetiche …   Enciclopedia di italiano

  • butadiene — pl.m. butadieni …   Dizionario dei sinonimi e contrari