/booh"keuhn wawld', book"euhn-/; Ger. /boohkh"euhn vahlt'/, n.site of a former Nazi concentration camp in central Germany, near Weimar.
* * *One of the first and biggest of the German Nazi concentration camps, established in 1937 near Weimar.In World War II it held about 20,000 prisoners, most of whom worked as slave laborers in nearby factories. Though there were no gas chambers, many perished through disease, malnutrition, exhaustion, beatings, and executions. Inmates were used to test the effects of viral infections and vaccines. The commandant's wife was the infamously sadistic Ilsa Koch (1906?–1967), the "Witch of Buchenwald." See also Holocaust.
* * *one of the first and biggest of the Nazi (Nazi Party) German concentration camps (concentration camp) established on German soil. It stood on a wooded hill about 4.5 miles (7 km) northwest of Weimar, Germany. Set up in 1937, it complemented the concentration camps of Sachsenhausen to the north and Dachau to the south and initially housed political prisoners and other targeted groups, including Jews.As in these other camps, the population of Buchenwald increased rapidly after Kristallnacht in November 1938, when Jewish men aged 16–60 were arrested and incarcerated. Many of these prisoners were subsequently released if they could find a place to go outside of Germany.The population of Buchenwald changed in number and composition. After the outbreak of World War II, Buchenwald continued to house political prisoners and, later, Poles. Most inmates worked as slave labourers at nearby work sites in 12-hour shifts around the clock. There were some 18,000 prisoners after Kristallnacht, 11,000 on the eve of the war, 63,000 by the end of 1944, and 86,000 in February 1945, when Buchenwald became the destination for some of the inmates forcibly evacuated from Auschwitz. Although there were no gas chambers, hundreds perished each month from disease, malnutrition, exhaustion, beatings, and executions. Camp records indicate that throughout its existence, some 240,000 prisoners from at least 30 countries were confined at Buchenwald. At least 10,000 were shipped to extermination camps (extermination camp), and some 43,000 people died at the camp.Buchenwald contained an official department for medical research, the Division for Typhus and Virus Research of the Hygiene Institute of the Waffen- SS, whose doctors and technicians tested the effects of viral infections and vaccines on inmates. The camp was run with rigid discipline, and from 1939 to 1945 Ilsa Koch (Koch, Ilsa), the “Witch of Buchenwald,” the wife of the SS commandant, achieved infamy for her sadistic behaviour.On April 6, 1945, some 28,500 prisoners were evacuated from Buchenwald on a death march on which one in four died. Just prior to the arrival of American troops on April 11, 1945, the German guards and officers fled, and inmates took over. Inmate officials were on hand to greet the liberating American troops later that day.Michael Berenbaum
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BUCHENWALD — BUCHENWALD, German concentration camp on the Ettersberg, near Weimar. Opened on July 19, 1937, it was one of the largest camps in Germany proper with 130 satellite camps and units. Buchenwald was considered the worst of the camps prior to World… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
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Buchenwald — localité de Thuringe (Allemagne) où fut installé de 1937 à 1945 un camp de concentration nazi … Encyclopédie Universelle
Buchenwald — (izg. bȕhnvald) m DEFINICIJA naselje S od Weimara u sred. Njemačkoj; od 1937 1945. nacistički koncentracioni logor … Hrvatski jezični portal
Buchenwald — [bo͞o′kən wôld΄; ] Ger [ bo͞okh′ən vält΄] village in central Germany, near Weimar, in the state of Thuringia: site of a Nazi concentration camp and extermination center … English World dictionary
Buchenwald — 51° 01′ 17″ N 11° 14′ 57″ E / 51.0213, 11.24928 Buchenwald était un … Wikipédia en Français
Buchenwald — Bu|chen|wald, der: Wald aus Buchen. * * * Buchenwald, Name für Lageranlagen auf dem Ettersberg bei Weimar: 1) nationalsozialistische Konzentrationslager (1937 45), von der SS im Juli 1937 als Barackenlager für etwa 8 000 Insassen (Name… … Universal-Lexikon
Buchenwald — Located north of Weimar, Buchenwald was founded in July 1937. The camp was initially used to incarcerate political prisoners, but subsequently the Nazis added “asocials” to the camp mix. Following Kristallnacht on 9–10 November 1938, about… … Historical dictionary of the Holocaust
Buchenwald — Uno de los primeros y más grandes campos de concentración de la Alemania nazi, establecido en 1937 cerca de Weimar. Durante la segunda guerra mundial tuvo cerca de 20.000 prisioneros, la mayoría de los cuales trabajaron como esclavos en las… … Enciclopedia Universal
Buchenwald — Sp Bùchenvaldas Ap Buchenwald L konc. stovykla C Vokietijoje … Pasaulio vietovardžiai. Internetinė duomenų bazė