bronchiectasis


bronchiectasis
bronchiectatic /brong'kee ek tat"ik/, adj.
/brong'kee ek"teuh sis/, n. Pathol.
a diseased condition in which a bronchus or the bronchi are distended, characterized by paroxysmal coughing and copious expectoration of sputum.
[1875-80; bronchi-, comb. form of BRONCHIA + ECTASIS]

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Abnormal expansion of bronchi in the lungs.

It usually results when preexisting lung disease causes bronchial inflammation and obstruction. Bronchial wall fibres degenerate, and bronchi become dilated or paralyzed, preventing removal of secretions, which stagnate. Infection spreads and intensifies. Evidence of the disease includes presence of infective agents, excess mucous secretions, and, in children, fatigue and growth retardation. Complications include recurrent pneumonia, lung abscesses, spitting up blood, and, in chronic cases, toe and finger clubbing. Treatment involves frequent, long-term drainage or (if the disease is on one side only) surgical removal of affected lung segments and antibiotics.

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 an abnormal expansion of the bronchial tubes in the lungs (lung) as a result of infection or obstruction. Usually the disorder occurs as the result of a preexisting lung disease. Certain inherited disorders such as cystic fibrosis can predispose the lungs to recurrent infections that result in bronchiectasis.

      Obstruction of the bronchi can result from tumours (tumour), mucous plugs, foreign objects (e.g., coins, food, candy), or abscesses (abscess). The obstruction in turn may lead to accumulation and stagnation of secretions and infections and loss of tone in the bronchial walls. Short-term infections, such as measles, whooping cough, pneumonia, or influenza, cannot by themselves cause bronchiectasis, but they can cause ulcers (ulcer) or weak spots in the bronchial walls. Chronic infections cause continued inflammation of the bronchial walls. The elastic and muscle fibres tend to degenerate in these circumstances, and this degeneration allows the dilatation of the bronchi. Once dilatation occurs, secretions tend to accumulate, and infection spreads and intensifies.

      Clinically, the disease is manifested by the presence of infective agents and by an overabundance of mucous secretions. Coughing may produce a thick purulent discharge from the passageways. In severe cases the sputum discharge may be heavy and may have a strong offensive odour. Erosion of blood vessels (blood vessel) in the bronchi can result in hemoptysis, the coughing up of blood. This complication may be life-threatening if it is associated with bleeding from a bronchial artery. Severe infection produces fatigue and growth retardation in children or weight loss in adults. Other complications that can arise from bronchiectasis include recurrent pneumonia, lung abscesses, and pneumothorax, the leakage of air into the pleural space. Chronic bronchiectasis may cause clubbing of the toes and fingers. The diagnosis is generally made by computerized tomographic (CT) scanning (computerized axial tomography) of the lungs.

      Treatment involves determining which segments of the lungs are afflicted and then draining them two or three times daily. Even after improvement has occurred, drainage is continued for a lengthy period. Antibiotics (antibiotic) are administered to control the infective organisms. If only one lung is diseased, surgical removal of the affected segments can occasionally be performed. With control of infection, life expectancy is normal in moderate cases.

John Hansen-Flaschen
 

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • bronchiectasis — (n.) Modern Latin, from Gk. bronkhia (see BRONCHIAL (Cf. bronchial)) + ektasis a stretching out, extension, dilation …   Etymology dictionary

  • bronchiectasis — [bräŋ΄kē ek′tə sis] n. [ModL < bronchus,BRONCHUS + Gr ektasis, a stretching out < ekteinein, to stretch out < ek , out + teinein, to stretch: see TEND2] an irreversible, chronic enlargement of certain bronchial tubes …   English World dictionary

  • Bronchiectasis — Permanent dilatation (widening) of the bronchi (the large air tubes which begin at the bottom of the trachea and branch into the lungs). Bronchiectasis can result in very serious illness including recurrent respiratory infections, a disabling… …   Medical dictionary

  • bronchiectasis — noun (plural bronchiectases) Etymology: New Latin, from bronchi + Greek ektasis extension more at atelectasis Date: circa 1860 a chronic dilatation of bronchi or bronchioles …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • bronchiectasis — noun Abnormal permanent dilation of the bronchial tubes …   Wiktionary

  • bronchiectasis — n. enlargement of the large bronchial tubes (Medicine) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • bronchiectasis — bron·chi·ectasis …   English syllables

  • bronchiectasis — n. widening of the bronchi or their branches. It may be congenital or it may result from infection (especially whooping cough or measles in childhood) or from obstruction, either by an inhaled foreign body or by a growth (including cancer). Pus… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • bronchiectasis — bron•chi•ec•ta•sis [[t]ˌbrɒŋ kiˈɛk tə sɪs[/t]] n. pat a chronic disease of the bronchial tubes characterized by distention and paroxysmal coughing • Etymology: 1875–80; bronchi(a)+ Gkéktasisstretching out …   From formal English to slang


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