Brahmo Samaj


Brahmo Samaj
/brah"moh/
a modern Hindu movement advocating a monotheistic religion based on the Upanishads, and social and educational reforms according to Western principles.
Also, Brahma Samaj.
[ < Bengali brahma samaj assembly of Brahma]

* * *

Monotheistic movement within Hinduism, founded in Calcutta (now Kolkata) in 1828 by Ram Mohun Roy.

It rejected the authority of the Vedas and the doctrine of avatars, did not insist on belief in karma or rebirth, denounced polytheism and the caste system, and adopted some Christian practices. Roy's intention was to reform Hinduism from within, but his successor, Debendranath Tagore, rejected Vedic authority. In 1866 Keshab Chunder Sen organized the more radical Brahmo Samaj of India, which campaigned for the education of women and against child marriages. After Keshab nonetheless arranged a marriage for his underage daughter, a third group, Sadharan Brahmo Samaj, was formed in 1878. It gradually reverted to the teaching of the Upanishads but continued the work of social reform. The movement, always an elite group without significant popular following, lost force in the 20th century.

* * *

Brahmo also spelled  Brahma 

      (Sanskrit: “Society of Brahmā”), quasi-Protestant, theistic movement within Hinduism, founded in Calcutta in 1828 by Ram Mohun Roy (Roy, Ram Mohun). The Brahmo Samaj does not accept the authority of the Vedas, has no faith in avatars (incarnations), and does not insist on belief in karma (causal effects of past deeds) or rebirth. It discards Hindu rituals and adopts some Christian practices in its worship. Influenced by Islām (Islāmic world) and Christianity, it denounces polytheism, idol worship, and the caste system. The society has had considerable success with its programs of social reform but has never had a significant popular following.

      Whereas Ram Mohun Roy wanted to reform Hinduism from within, his successor, Debendranath Tagore (Tagore, Debendranath), broke away in 1850 by repudiating Vedic authority and making reason and intuition the basis of Brahmanism. He tried, however, to retain some of the traditional Hindu customs, and a radical group led by Keshab Chunder Sen (q.v.) seceded and organized the Brahmo Samaj of India in 1866 (the older group became known as the Adi—i.e., original—Brahmo Samaj). The new branch became eclectic and cosmopolitan and was also most influential in the struggle for social reform. It sponsored the Band of Hope temperance society, encouraged the education of women, and campaigned for the remarriage of widows and for legislation to prevent child marriages. When Keshab arranged for his daughter to marry the Prince of Cooch Behār, both parties were well under age. He was thus violating his own reformist principles, and many of his followers rebelled, forming a third samāj, or “association,” the Sadharan (i.e., common) Brahmo Samaj, in 1878. The Sadharan Samaj gradually reverted to the teaching of the Upaniṣads and carried on the work of social reform. Although the movement lost force in the 20th century, its fundamental social tenets were accepted, at least in theory, by Hindu society.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Brahmo Samaj — (Bengali ব্রাহ্ম সমাজ Bramho Shômaj ) is the societal component of Brahmoism. It is without doubt the most influential socio religious movement in the evolution of Modern ( Greater ) India. [J.N.Farquahar Modern Relgious Movements of India,(1915) …   Wikipedia

  • Brahmo Samaj — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Brahmo Samaj: Es un movimiento social y religioso fundado en el siglo XIX durante el llamado renacimiento de Bengala. Brahmo Samaj significa literalmente la sociedad de devotos del Dios verdadero. Brahmo significa… …   Wikipedia Español

  • brahmo samaj — bràhmo sàmāj m DEFINICIJA pokret unutar hinduizma (od 1828), odbacuje mnoge elemente hinduizma i preuzima neke od kršćanskih rituala ETIMOLOGIJA bengal. brahma samaj: skupština Brahma …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • BRAHMO SAMAJ — BR HMO SAM J Nom donné par son fondateur à l’un des puissants courants réformateurs qui se sont manifestés depuis le début du XIXe siècle au sein de l’hindouisme.De telles tendances ont toujours existé en Inde, notamment avec les prédications de… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Brahmo Samaj — Der Brahmo Samaj ist eine hinduistische Reformorganisation, die 1828 von Ram Mohan Roy in Kolkata gegründet wurde. Obwohl der Brahmo Samaj niemals viele Mitglieder hatte, war sein Einfluss auf das geistige Leben Bengalens beträchtlich. Eines… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Brahmo Samaj — (est. 1828)    The Brahmo Samaj (The Society of Worshippers of One God) was founded in Calcutta (Kolkata) A Brahmin priest wearing sacred thread at a village tem ple near Benares (Varanasi), India (Constance A. Jones)India, in 1828 by Raja… …   Encyclopedia of Hinduism

  • Brahmo Samaj — Le Brahmo Samaj est un mouvement religieux théiste fondé dans les années 1830 en Inde par Râm Mohan Roy. S inspirant d éléments de l hindouisme, de l islam et du christianisme, la doctrine de ce courant religieux rejette le culte des images et l… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Brahmo Samaj — Movimiento monoteísta dentro del hinduismo, fundado en Calcuta (actual Kolkata) en 1828 por Ram Mohun Roy. Rechazó la autoridad de los Vedas y la doctrina de los avatares, no insistió en la creencia en el karma o renacimiento, denunció el… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Brahmo Samaj — /brah moh/ a modern Hindu movement advocating a monotheistic religion based on the Upanishads, and social and educational reforms according to Western principles. Also, Brahma Samaj. [ < Bengali brahma samaj assembly of Brahma] …   Useful english dictionary

  • Sadharan Brahmo Samaj — The Sadharan Brahmo Samaj is a religious division of Brahmoism formed as a result of 2 schisms in the Brahmo Samaj in 1866 and 1878 respectively.Fact|date=August 2008The Brahmo Samaj The Brahmo Samaj movement was started on the 20th of August,… …   Wikipedia


We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.