Bosporus


Bosporus
Bosporan, Bosporanic /bos'peuh ran"ik/, Bosporian /bo spawr"ee euhn, -spohr"-/, adj.
/bos"peuhr euhs/, n.
a strait connecting the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara. 18 mi. (29 km) long.
Also, Bosphorus /bos"feuhr euhs/. Cf. Dardanelles.

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Strait separating European Turkey from Asian Turkey.

Connecting the Sea of Marmara with the Black Sea, it is 19 mi (31 km) long and 2.8 mi (4.4 km) at its widest. Bosporus literally means "ox ford"; it is traditionally connected with the legendary figure of Io, who in the form of a heifer crossed the Thracian Bosporus in her wanderings. Because of its strategic importance for the defense of Constantinople (modern Istanbul), which straddled its southern end, the Byzantine emperors and later the Ottoman sultans constructed fortifications along its shores. With the growing influence of the European powers in the 19th century, rules were codified governing the transit of vessels through the strait. An international commission assumed control of it after World War I; Turkey resumed control in 1936. Two of the world's longest bridges, completed in 1973 and 1988, span the strait.

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also spelled  Bosphorus,  Turkish  İstanbul Bogazi, Karadeniz Bogazi, or Bogaziçi,  
 strait (boğaz, “throat”) uniting the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara and separating parts of Asian Turkey (Anatolia) from European Turkey.

      The Bosporus is 19 miles (30 km) long, with a maximum width of 2.3 miles (3.7 km) at the northern entrance and a minimum width of 2,450 feet (750 m) between the Ottoman fortifications of Rumelihisarı and Anadoluhisarı. Its depth varies from 120 to 408 feet (36.5 to 124 m) in midstream. In its centre a rapid current flows from the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara, but a countercurrent below the surface carries water of greater salinity from the Sea of Marmara to the Black Sea. The Bosporus is heavily fished, since the channel is a seasonal migration route for fish to and from the Black Sea. Both shores are well wooded and are dotted with villages, resorts, and fine residences and villas.

      Bosporus literally means “ox ford” and is traditionally connected with the legendary figure of Io, who in the form of a heifer crossed the Thracian Bosporus in her wanderings. Because of its strategic importance for the defense of Constantinople (now Istanbul), straddling the southern end of the strait, the Byzantine emperors and later the Ottoman sultans constructed fortifications along its shores, especially on the European side. Two noteworthy examples are the castles of Anadoluhisarı, which was constructed on the Asian shore by Bayezid I in 1390–91, and Rumelihisarı, built directly across the strait by Mehmed II in 1452.

  With the growing influence of the European powers in the 19th century, rules were codified (in treaties of 1841 and 1871) governing the transit of commercial and naval vessels through the strait. An international commission assumed control of the strait after the Ottoman defeat in World War I; Turkey resumed control in 1936. Two bridges have been built across the strait. The first, the Bŏgaziçi (Bosporus I) Bridge, was completed in 1973 and has a main span of 3,524 feet (1,074 m; see photograph—>). The second bridge, the Fatih Sultan Mehmed (Bosporus II), was completed in 1988 and has a main span of 3,576 feet (1,090 m; see photograph—>).
 

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Bosporus — Der Bosporus, im unteren Teil des Bildes İstanbul, das sowohl in Europa (links) als auch in Kleinasien (rechts) liegt Verbindet Gewässer …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Bosporus — Bos po*rus (b[o^]s p[ o]*r[u^]s), n. [L.] A strait or narrow sea between two seas, or a lake and a seas; as, the Bosporus (formerly the Thracian Bosporus) or Strait of Constantinople, between the Black Sea and Sea of Marmora; the Cimmerian… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Bosporus — Bosporus, die Meerenge, welche das schwarze Meer mit dem Mittelmeer verbindet, angeblich so benannt, weil Jupiter als Stier (Bos) die Europa entführend, diesen Meeresarm durchschwamm. – Im Alterthum war der noch jetzt allgemein so genannte… …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • Bospŏrus — (v. gr., d.i. Ochsenfurt, a. Geogr.), 1) B. Cimmerius, die Meerenge zwischen Chersonesos Taurika und Sindike; hier soll die in eine Kuh verwandelte Jo auf ihren Irrfahrten durchgegangen sein; jetzt Straße von Kassa. Die Anwohner hießen Bosporani; …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Bospŏrus — (griech., türk. Istambul Boghazi), die aus dem Schwarzen Meer ins Marmarameer führende Meerenge, zum Unterschied von andern gleichnamigen Meerengen Thrakischer B., auch »Straße von Konstantinopel« genannt (s. Karton auf Karte »Balkanhalbinsel«).… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Bosporus — Bospŏrus, Thrazischer B. oder Straße von Konstantinopel, Meerenge zwischen dem Schwarzen Meer und der Propontis (Marmarameer). [Karte: Europa I, 7.] – Kimmērischer B., bei den Alten die jetzige Straße von Kertsch (Kaffa, Feodosia). Zu beiden… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Bosporus — Bosporus, der griech. Namen zweier Meerengen; der thracische B., jetzt Meerenge von Constantinopel, und der kimmerische B., jetzt Straße von Feodosia oder Kertsch, der Ausfluß des asowschen Meeres. Am kimmerischen B. bestand bereits um 500 v. Chr …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Bosporus — [bäs′fə rəsbäs′pə rəs] strait between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara: c. 20 mi (32 km) long: also Bosphorus [bäs′fə rəs] …   English World dictionary

  • Bosporus — The Bosporus or Bosphorus, also known as the Istanbul Strait , ( tr. İstanbul Boğazı) ( el. Βόσπορος) is a strait that forms the boundary between the European part (Rumelia) of Turkey and its Asian part (Anatolia). The world s narrowest strait… …   Wikipedia

  • Bosporus — Bọs|po|rus, der; : Meerenge zwischen Schwarzem Meer u. Marmarameer. * * * Bọsporus,   1) türkisch Karadeniz Boğazɪ [ bɔː ɑzɪ], die Meerenge zwischen Europa und Asien, die das Schwarze Meer mit dem Marmarameer verbindet, 31 km lang, 660 bis 3… …   Universal-Lexikon


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