Bornu


Bornu
/bawr"nooh/, n.
a former sultanate in Africa, SW of Lake Chad: now largely a province in Nigeria.

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Vast plain, northeastern Nigeria.

Prominent physical features include the plain, a volcanic plateau, and swamps south of Lake Chad. Now inhabited chiefly by the Kanuri people, it constituted a Muslim kingdom from about the 11th century. Together with Kanem it later formed an empire (see Kanem-Bornu), which reached the height of its power с 1570–1600. Visited by Europeans in the 19th century, in 1902 it became part of Nigeria, which was then under British rule. In 1967 it became the state of Borno, Nigeria's largest, covering 70,898 sq mi (183,555 sq km).

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▪ historical kingdom and emirate, Nigeria
      historical kingdom and emirate in northeastern Nigeria. Bornu was originally the southernmost province of the Kanem empire, an ancient kingdom that reached its peak in the 12th and 13th centuries. Toward the end of the 14th century the power of Kanem waned, and the empire shrank until little was left of it except Bornu. Succeeding centuries saw the final dissolution of the Kanem kingdom by its hostile neighbours (c. 1380) and the rise of Bornu. In the early 16th century, Bornu managed to recapture Kanem and made it a protectorate. The reamalgamated kingdom of Kanem-Bornu probably reached its height in the reign of Mai Idris Alawma (reigned c. 1571–c. 1603).

      Birni Gazargamu, the capital of the Bornu kingdom, was captured in the jihad (holy war) conducted by Fulani tribesmen in 1808. Muḥammed (al-Amin) al-Kanamī, a member of the royal family who advised the mais (“emperors”) of Bornu, founded Kukawa (80 miles [130 km] north-northeast of Maiduguri) as the Kanuri capital in 1814 and restored Bornu's independence from Fulani domination in the 1820s. After the death of the Sefawa Mai Ali Dalatami in 1846, al-Kanamī's son Umar (Omar) proclaimed himself the first shehu (that is, sheikh, or sultan) of Bornu.

      Bornu was defeated and Kukawa was destroyed by the Sudanese warrior Rābiḥ az-Zubayr (Rabah Zubayr) in 1893, and Dikwa (54 miles [87 km] east-northeast of Maiduguri) served as Rābiḥ's headquarters until he was killed by the French in 1900. The French restored the al-Kanamī dynasty in Dikwa; but, after the final partition of Bornu among the British, the French, and the Germans, Shehu Bukar Garbai fled in 1902 to Northern Nigeria and was recognized as the shehu of British Bornu. Bornu was thus acknowledged as an emirate, but Garbai moved its headquarters from Monguno (65 miles [105 km] north-northeast of Maiduguri) to Kukawa in 1904 and, finally, to Yerwa in 1907. The shehu of Bornu still resides at Yerwa and is officially recognized as Nigeria's second most important traditional Muslim leader, after the Fulanis' sultan of Sokoto. Much of the emirate's former territory is now in Borno and Yobe states.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Bornu — may refer to:* Bornu Empire, a historical state of West Africa * Borno State, Nigeria …   Wikipedia

  • Bornú — (Bornu) ► Antiguo reino de Sudán central, al SO del lago Chad, en Nigeria. Corresponde aprox. al actual Estado homónimo; 116 400 km2 y 2 596 589 h. Cap., Maiduguri. * * * Vasta planicie del nordeste de Nigeria. Las principales características… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Bornu — Bornu, großes Reich in Mittel Sudan, im N. von den Tuariks u. Tibbos in der Sahara u. von Kanem, im O. vom Tschadsee u. dessen Zufluß, dem Schary, im S. von Loggne u. Mandara, im W. von Haufsah od. dem Fellatahreiche begrenzt, liegt ungefähr… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Bornu — Bornu, ehemaliges Reich im mittlern Sudân, das mit Kanem (s.d.) und dem von beiden eingeschlossenen Tsadsee 242,701 qkm umfaßte, jetzt aber zwischen Großbritannien, Deutschland und Frankreich aufgeteilt worden ist. S. Karte bei Art. »Guinea«. Das …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Bornu — Bornu, ehemal. mohammed. Negerreich im mittlern Sudan, im W. und S. des Tsadsees; in brit., deutschem und franz. Kolonialgebiet; produktenreich, früher ein Teil des Reiches Kanem. Von Ali Dunamami (1472 1505) begründet; höchste Blüte unter Edriß… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Bornu — Bornu, großes Reich im innern Afrika, südl. von Fezzan, von noch unbestimmter Größe und Einwohnerzahl. Das Land ist fast durchgängig eben, mit den Flüssen Schary und Yeu und dem Tschadsee; der Boden ist sehr ergiebig, Reis, Mais, Gerste,… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Bornu — Lage von Bornu auf einer deutschen Karte von 1891 (oben rechts) Bornu war ein Reich im Zentralsudan, welches auf dem Gebiet der heutigen Staaten Nigeria, Niger und Tschad lag. Zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhundert hatte es in seiner größten Ausdehnung… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Bornu — Bọrnu,   afrikanisches Reich (14. 19. Jahrhundert) südwestlich des Tschadsees, stand in engem geschichtlichen Zusammenhang mit dem Reich Kanem (8. 14. Jahrhundert; Kanem Bornu). Das Gebiet bildet seit 1976 als Borno (Bornu) den nordöstlichsten… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • BORNU —    (5,000), a Mohammedan State in the Central Soudan, W. and S. of Lake Tehad; famed for a breed of horses; population mostly negroes; the ruling race of Arab descent, called Shuwas; climate hot and unhealthy in the low ground, but temperate in… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Bornu — /bawr nooh/, n. a former sultanate in Africa, SW of Lake Chad: now largely a province in Nigeria …   Useful english dictionary


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