Bophuthatswana


Bophuthatswana
/boh'pooh taht swah"neuh/, n.
a self-governing Bantu territory of South Africa, consisting of several landlocked areas, along the NE part: granted independence in 1977 by South Africa, but not recognized by any other country as an independent state. 2,600,000; 16,988 sq. mi. (44,000 sq. km). Cap.: Mmabatho.

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Former political entity, South Africa.

Consisting of a group of noncontiguous black enclaves, it was established by South African authorities as a "homeland" for the Tswana people and granted its independence in 1977, with its capital at Mmabatho. It was never internationally recognized as independent. Under the 1993 South African constitution, Bophuthatswana was dissolved and the area was reincorporated into South Africa. Its various enclaves, with a population of more than 2,500,000, became parts of Orange Free State (now Free State) and the newly created North-West and Eastern Transvaal (now Mpumalanga) provinces.

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▪ historical republic, Africa
      former republic (though never internationally recognized as such) and Bantustan that was the legally designated homeland for the Republic of South Africa's Tswana people. It consisted of seven distinct territorial units located north or west of the Witwatersrand, in north-central South Africa, and lying near or on the border with Botswana. Its capital, Mmabatho, was situated northwest of the city of Mafikeng (formerly Mafeking), which became part of Bophuthatswana in 1980. The name of the republic meant “that which binds” (bophutha) to the Tswana-speaking (Tswana) people.

      The Tswana settled in the area about 1600. The region suffered from wars started by Shaka, the founder of the Zulu empire, and from famine between 1822 and 1837. The resulting migrations led to the formation of subgroups of Tswana and new settlements. In 1837 the Boers gained control of the region. The constituent areas of Bophuthatswana were designated a Tswana “homeland” by the South African government in the 1960s. The territorial assembly created in 1961 was replaced a decade later with a partly elected, partly appointed legislative assembly. Bophuthatswana became officially self-governing (1972) as one of South Africa's nonindependent Bantustans, with Lucas M. Mangope as chief minister, and was declared an independent republic in December 1977.

      Most of Bophuthatswana's semiarid terrain was used for grazing beef and dairy cattle, while the scarce arable land supported corn (maize), sorghum, wheat, and peanuts (groundnuts). The republic's small-scale industries produced beverages, processed tobacco, textiles, wood products, and leather goods. Mafikeng and the Witwatersrand were places of employment for many of Bophuthatswana's commuters and contract migrant workers. Gambling casinos also became a source of income during the 1980s.

      Under the South African constitution that abolished the apartheid system, Bophuthatswana was dissolved and reincorporated into South Africa in 1994. Its various enclaves became parts of Orange Free State (now Free State) province and the newly created North-West and Eastern Transvaal (now Mpumalanga) provinces.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • BophuthaTswana — BophuthaTswana,   ehemaliges Homeland im Norden der Republik Südafrika, 44 000 km2, etwa 2,5 Mio. Einwohner (meist Tswana). Seit der Errichtung der neuen südafrikanischen Provinzen 1994 sind die sechs Gebiete von BophuthaTswana auf die Provinzen… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Bophuthatswana — ensemble de districts de l Afrique du Sud, dans la prov. du Nord Ouest, qui correspond à un anc. bantoustan (1959 1994, indépendant en 1977) dont les diverses parcelles se situaient au N. du Vaal …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Bophuthatswana — → Bofutatsuana …   Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

  • Bophuthatswana — [bō΄po͞o tät swän′ə] former group of noncontiguous black homelands in N South Africa, on the Botswana border: granted independence in 1977, it was disbanded in 1994 …   English World dictionary

  • Bophuthatswana — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Tswanaland (homonymie). Bophuthatswana 1977 – 1994 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Bophuthatswana — Infobox Former Subdivision conventional long name = Republic of Bophuthatswana common name = Bophuthatswana native name = continent = Africa region = Southern Africa country = South Africa subdivision = Bantustan nation = South Africa | event… …   Wikipedia

  • Bophuthatswana — Flagge Bophuthatswanas …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Bophuthatswana — (Repaboliki ya Bophuthatswana) ► Antigua región del sur de África formada por siete núcleos territoriales, separados entre sí, rodeados por la República de Sudáfrica y en la frontera de este país con Botswana. 570 000 km2 y 936 600 h. Cap.,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Bophuthatswana — geographical name former group of noncontiguous black enclaves in the Republic of South Africa capital Mmabatho; granted independence 1977; abolished 1994 …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Bophuthatswana —  Former South African black homeland; capital Mmabatho. Reintegrated into South Africa in 1994 …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors


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