binding energy


binding energy
1. Also called separation energy. the energy required to decompose a molecule, atom, or nucleus into its constituent particles, equal to the energy equivalent of the mass defect.
2. the energy required to separate a single particle or group of particles from a molecule, atom, or nucleus. Cf. mass defect.
[1930-35]

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Energy required to separate a particle from a system of particles or to disperse all the particles of a system.

Nuclear binding energy is the energy required to separate an atomic nucleus into its constituent protons and neutrons. It is also the energy that would be released by combining individual protons and neutrons into a single nucleus. Electron binding energy, or ionization potential, is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom, molecule, or ion, and also the energy released when an electron joins an atom, molecule, or ion. The binding energy of a single proton or neutron in a nucleus is about a million times greater than that of a single electron in an atom.

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      amount of energy required to separate a particle from a system of particles or to disperse all the particles of the system. Binding energy is especially applicable to subatomic particles in atomic nuclei, to electrons bound to nuclei in atoms, and to atoms and ions bound together in crystals.

      Nuclear binding energy is the energy required to separate an atomic nucleus completely into its constituent protons and neutrons, or, equivalently, the energy that would be liberated by combining individual protons and neutrons into a single nucleus. The hydrogen-2 nucleus, for example, composed of one proton and one neutron, can be separated completely by supplying 2.23 million electron volts (MeV) of energy. Conversely, when a slowly moving neutron and proton combine to form a hydrogen-2 nucleus, 2.23 MeV are liberated in the form of gamma radiation. The total mass of the bound particles is less than the sum of the masses of the separate particles by an amount equivalent (as expressed in Einstein's mass–energy equation) to the binding energy.

      Electron binding energy, also called ionization potential (ionization energy), is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom, a molecule, or an ion. In general, the binding energy of a single proton or neutron in a nucleus is approximately a million times greater than the binding energy of a single electron in an atom.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • binding energy — noun the energy required to separate particles from a molecule or atom or nucleus; equals the mass defect • Syn: ↑separation energy • Hypernyms: ↑energy, ↑free energy …   Useful english dictionary

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