bile


bile
/buyl/, n.
1. Physiol. a bitter, alkaline, yellow or greenish liquid, secreted by the liver, that aids in absorption and digestion, esp. of fats.
2. ill temper; peevishness.
3. Old Physiol. either of two humors associated with anger and gloominess. Cf. black bile, yellow bile.
[1655-65; < F < L bilis]

* * *

Greenish-yellow liver secretion passed to the gallbladder for concentration, storage, or transport into the duodenum for fat digestion.

Bile contains bile acids and salts, cholesterol, and electrolyte chemicals that keep it slightly acidic. In the intestine, products of the acids and salts emulsify fat and reduce its surface tension to prepare it for the action of pancreatic and intestinal fat-splitting enzymes.

* * *

also called  gall 

      greenish yellow secretion that is produced in the liver and passed to the gallbladder for concentration, storage, or transport into the first region of the small intestine, the duodenum. Its function is to aid in the digestion of fats (fat) in the duodenum. Bile is composed of bile acids and salts, phospholipids, cholesterol, pigments, water, and electrolyte chemicals that keep the total solution slightly acidic (with a pH of about 5 to 6). Bile is continually secreted from the cells of the liver into the common bile duct and gallbladder; once in the gallbladder it is usually concentrated to about 5 times—and sometimes as high as 18 times—the strength of the original secretion. The amount of bile secreted into the duodenum is controlled by the hormones cholecystokinin, secretin, gastrin, and somatostatin and also by the vagus nerve. About 800 to 1,000 ml of bile (before concentration) are produced daily by the liver.

      Bile salts are composed of the salts of four different kinds of free bile acids (cholic, deoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic, and lithocholic acids); each of these acids may in turn combine with glycine or taurine to form more complex acids and salts. Bile salts and acids can be synthesized from cholesterol or extracted from the bloodstream by the liver. They pass from the liver into the small intestine, where they act as detergents to emulsify fat and reduce the surface tension on fat droplets to prepare them for the action of pancreatic and intestinal fat-splitting enzymes. The salts are large, negatively charged ions that are not readily absorbed by the upper region of the small intestine; consequently, they remain in the small intestine until most of the fat is digested. In the lower small intestine, the salts and acids are absorbed and passed back into the bloodstream until they are once again extracted by the liver; this cycle, from the liver to the small intestine and blood and then back to the liver, is called enterohepatic circulation. Some salts and acids are lost during this process; these are replaced in the liver by continual synthesis from cholesterol. The rate of synthesis is directly related to the amount of acids and salts lost. Bile salts do not normally reach the colon; when they do, however, they may inhibit the absorption of water and sodium, causing a watery diarrhea.

      Bile salts and acids are transported in a fluid that contains water, sodium, chloride, and bicarbonates. This fluid is produced in the liver, and it serves to neutralize hydrochloric acid passed from the stomach into the small intestine. Water-insoluble wastes that the liver removes from blood, such as cholesterol, steroids, drugs, and hemoglobin pigments, are carried in the fluid to the excretory system. Hemoglobin pigments are broken down, producing several bile fluid compounds, including bilirubin, which has no known function other than that of a colouring agent. Traces of other substances can also be found in bile including mucus, serum proteins, lecithin, neutral fats, fatty acids, and urea.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • bile — bile …   Dictionnaire des rimes

  • bile — [ bil ] n. f. • 1539; lat. bilis 1 ♦ Liquide visqueux et amer sécrété par le foie, qui s accumule dans la vésicule biliaire d où il est déversé dans le duodénum au moment de la digestion. ⇒ chol(é) . Composants de la bile. ⇒ bilirubine, sel (sels …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Bile — or gall is a bitter yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. In many species, bile is stored in the gallbladder between meals and upon eating is discharged into the duodenum where the bile aids… …   Wikipedia

  • Bile — is a yellow green fluid that is made by the liver, stored in the gallbladder and passes through the common bile duct into the duodenum where it helps digest fat. The principal components of bile are cholesterol, bile salts, and the pigment… …   Medical dictionary

  • bile — bile; blood·mo·bile; blow·mo·bile; book·mo·bile; cin·e·mo·bile; club·mo·bile; hip·po·mo·bile; la·bile; mo·bile; nu·bile; push·mo·bile; sea·mo·bile; skate·mo·bile; ver·bile; art·mo·bile; lo·co·mo·bile; snow·mo·bile; sta·bile; …   English syllables

  • bile — BILE. s. f. L une des humeurs du corps animal, dont la sécrétion se fait dans le foie. Bile jaune. Bile noire. Avoir la bile échauffée. Il a la bile recuite. Émouvoir la bile. Exciter la bile. Purger la bile. Être plein de bile. Il regorge de… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • bile — BILE. s. f. L une des quatre humeurs du corps humain. Bile jaune. bile noire. avoir la bile eschauffée. esmouvoir la bile. exciter la bile. purger la bile. plein de bile. la bile qui regorge. vapeurs de bile. degorgement de bile. Il signifie… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • Bile — heißen die Orte in Ukraine Bile (Lutuhyne), Siedlung städtischen Typs in der Oblast Luhansk, Rajon Lutuhyne Bile (Kupjansk), Dorf in der Oblast Charkiw, Rajon Kupjansk Bile (Peremyschljany), Dorf in der Oblast Lwiw, Rajon Peremyschljany Bile… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Bile — Bile, n. [L. bilis: cf. F. bile.] 1. (Physiol.) A yellow, or greenish, viscid fluid, usually alkaline in reaction, secreted by the liver. It passes into the intestines, where it aids in the digestive process. Its characteristic constituents are… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • bile — (n.) 1660s, from Fr. bile (17c.) bile, also, informally, anger, from L. bilis fluid secreted by the liver, also one of the four humors (also known as choler), thus anger, peevishness (especially as black bile, 1797) …   Etymology dictionary

  • bile — [bīl] n. [Fr < L bilis] 1. the bitter, alkaline, yellow brown or greenish fluid secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder: it is discharged into the duodenum and helps in digestion, esp. of fats 2. a) either of two bodily humors… …   English World dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.