bhakti


bhakti
/buk"tee/, n. Hinduism.
1. selfless devotion as a means of reaching Brahman. Cf. jnana, karma (def. 1).
2. (cap.) a popular religious movement centered around the personal worship of gods, esp. Vishnu and Shiva. Cf. Saiva, Vaishnava.
[1825-35; < Skt: devotion]

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Southern Asian devotional movement, particularly in Hinduism, emphasizing the love of a devotee for his or her personal god.

In contrast to Advaita, bhakti assumes a dualistic relationship between devotee and deity. Though Vishnu, Shiva, and Shakti (see shakti) all have cults, bhakti characteristically developed around Vishnu's incarnations as Rama and Krishna. Practices include reciting the god's name, singing hymns, wearing his emblem, and making pilgrimages. The fervour of South Indian hymnists in the 7th–10th centuries spread bhakti and inspired much poetry and art. Poets such as Mirabai conceived of the relationship between the worshiper and the god in familiar human terms (e.g., the lover and beloved), while more abstract poets such as Kabir and his disciple Nanak, the first Sikh Guru and founder of Sikhism, portrayed the divinity as singular and ineffable.

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      (“devotion,” from Sanskrit bhaj, “to share,” “to love”), in Hinduism, a movement emphasizing the mutual intense emotional attachment and love of a devotee toward a personal god and of the god for the devotee. According to the Bhagavadgita, a Hindu religious text, the path of bhakti (bhakti-marga) can be contrasted with two other religious approaches, the path of knowledge ( jnana) and the path of ritual and good works ( karma).

      Bhakti arose in South India in the 7th to 10th centuries in poems that the Alvars (Āḷvār) and the Nayanars (Nāyanār) composed in Tamil to the gods Vishnu and Shiva. Drawing on earlier Tamil secular traditions of erotic poetry as well as royal traditions, bhakti poets applied to the god what would usually be said of the absent lover or of the king. Bhakti soon spread to North India, appearing most notably in the 10th-century Sanskrit text the Bhagavata-purana (Bhāgavata-Purāṇa).

      Each of the major divinities of Hinduism—Vishnu, Shiva, and the various forms of the Goddess—have distinct devotional traditions. Vishnu-bhakti is based on Vishnu's incarnations, particularly Krishna and Rama. Devotion to Shiva is associated with his frequent manifestations on earth—in which he can appear as anyone, even a tribal hunter, an untouchable (now also called a Dalit), or a Muslim. Devotion to the goddesses is more regional and local, expressed in temples and in festivals to Durga, Kali, Shitala (goddess of smallpox), Lakshmi (Lakṣmī) (goddess of good fortune), and many others.

      Many, but not all, bhakti movements were open to people of both genders and all castes. Devotional practices included reciting the name of the god or goddess, singing hymns in praise of the deity, wearing or carrying identifying emblems, and undertaking pilgrimages (pilgrimage) to sacred places associated with the deity. Devotees also offered daily sacrifices—for some, animal sacrifices; for others, vegetarian sacrifices of fruit and flowers—in the home or temple. After the group ritual at the temple, the priest would distribute bits of the deity's leftover food (called prasad, the word for “grace”). Seeing the god ( darshan), and being seen by him, was an essential part of the ritual.

      During the medieval period (12th to mid-18th century), different local traditions explored the various possible relationships between the worshipper and the deity. They were considered analogous to human relationships based on the sentiments involved, such as those felt by a servant toward his master, a friend toward a friend, a parent toward a child, a child toward a parent, and a woman toward her beloved. In South India, passionate poems to Shiva were composed in Tamil and other Dravidian languages, such as Kannada (Kannada literature) and Malayalam (Malayalam language). In Bengal the mystic Caitanya (1485–1533) stressed the passionate yearning of a woman for her beloved, while his contemporary Vallabha (1479–1531) delighted in the exploits of Krishna as both the divine child and the divine lover. In the 16th century, Tulsidas (Tulsīdās)'s retelling of the Rama legend in the Ramcaritmanas (“Sacred Lake of the Acts of Rama”) focused on the sentiment of friendship and loyalty. Poet-saints such as Kabir (Kabīr) (1440–1518) fused bhakti ideas with Sufi (Ṣūfism) (mystical) elements from Islam (Islām).

Wendy Doniger

Additional Reading
Friedhelm Hardy, Viraha-bhakti: The Early History of Krṣṇạ Devotion in South India (1983, reissued 2001); and Philip Lutgendorf, The Life of a Text: Performing the Rāmacaritmānas of Tulsidas (1991), are useful introductions to various aspects of the bhakti tradition.Wendy Doniger

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Universalium. 2010.

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