bacteriology


bacteriology
bacteriological /bak tear'ee euh loj"i keuhl/, bacteriologic, adj.bacteriologically, adv.bacteriologist, n.
/bak tear'ee ol"euh jee/, n.
a branch of microbiology dealing with the identification, study, and cultivation of bacteria and with their applications in medicine, agriculture, industry, and biotechnology.
[1880-85; BACTERIO- + -LOGY]

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Study of bacteria.

Modern understanding of bacterial forms dates from Ferdinand Cohn's classifications. Other researchers, such as Louis Pasteur, established the connection between bacteria and fermentation and disease. The modern methods of bacteriological technique began in the late 19th century with the use of stains and the development of methods of cultivating organisms on plates of nutrients. Important discoveries came when Pasteur succeeded in immunizing animals against two bacterial diseases, which led to the development of immunology. See also microbiology.

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      branch of microbiology dealing with the study of bacteria.

      The beginnings of bacteriology paralleled the development of the microscope. The first person to see microorganisms was probably the Dutch naturalist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (Leeuwenhoek, Antonie van), who in 1683 described some animalcules, as they were then called, in water, saliva, and other substances. These had been seen with a simple lens magnifying about 100–150 diameters. The organisms seem to correspond with some of the very large forms of bacteria as now recognized.

      As late as the mid-19th century, bacteria were known only to a few experts and in a few forms as curiosities of the microscope, chiefly interesting for their minuteness and motility. Modern understanding of the forms of bacteria dates from Ferdinand Cohn (Cohn, Ferdinand)'s brilliant classifications, the chief results of which were published at various periods between 1853 and 1872. While Cohn and others advanced knowledge of the morphology of bacteria, other researchers, such as Louis Pasteur (Pasteur, Louis) and Robert Koch (Koch, Robert), established the connections between bacteria and the processes of fermentation and disease, in the process discarding the theory of spontaneous generation and improving antisepsis in medical treatment.

      The modern methods of bacteriological technique had their beginnings in 1870–85 with the introduction of the use of stains and by the discovery of the method of separating mixtures of organisms on plates of nutrient media solidified with gelatin or agar. Important discoveries came in 1880 and 1881, when Pasteur succeeded in immunizing animals against two diseases caused by bacteria. His research led to a study of disease prevention and the treatment of disease by vaccines and immune serums (a branch of medicine now called immunology). Other scientists recognized the importance of bacteria in agriculture and the dairy industry.

      Bacteriological study subsequently developed a number of specializations, among which are agricultural, or soil, bacteriology; clinical diagnostic bacteriology; industrial bacteriology; marine bacteriology; public-health bacteriology; sanitary, or hygienic, bacteriology; and systematic bacteriology, which deals with taxonomy.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Bacteriology — Bac*te ri*ol o*gy, n. [Bacterium + logy.] (Biol.) The branch of microbiology relating to bacteria. [1913 Webster] || …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • bacteriology — 1884, from German; see BACTERIA (Cf. bacteria) + OLOGY (Cf. ology). Related: Bacteriological (1886). Bacteriological warfare is from 1924 …   Etymology dictionary

  • bacteriology — ► NOUN ▪ the study of bacteria. DERIVATIVES bacteriologist noun …   English terms dictionary

  • bacteriology — [bak tir΄ē äl′ə jē] n. the study of bacteria, either as a branch of medicine or as a science, important in food processing, agriculture, industry, etc. bacteriologic [bak tir΄ē ə läj′ik] adj. bacteriological bacteriologically adv. bacteriologist… …   English World dictionary

  • Bacteriology — The science and study of bacteria and their relation to medicine and to other areas such as agriculture (e.g., farm animals) and industry. Bacteria are single celled microorganisms which can live as independent organisms or, dependently, as… …   Medical dictionary

  • bacteriology — [[t]bæktɪ͟əriɒ̱ləʤi[/t]] N UNCOUNT Bacteriology is the science and the study of bacteria. Derived words: bacteriological [[t]bæktɪ͟əriəlɒ̱ʤɪk(ə)l[/t]] ADJ ADJ n ...the national bacteriological laboratory …   English dictionary

  • bacteriology — noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary Date: 1884 1. a science that deals with bacteria and their relations to medicine, industry, and agriculture 2. bacterial life and phenomena • bacteriologic or …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • bacteriology — noun The scientific study of bacteria, especially in relation to disease and agriculture …   Wiktionary

  • bacteriology — Synonyms and related words: aerobiology, agrobiology, anatomy, astrobiology, biochemics, biochemistry, biochemy, bioecology, biological science, biology, biometrics, biometry, bionics, bionomics, biophysics, botany, cell physiology, cryobiology,… …   Moby Thesaurus

  • bacteriology — bac|te|ri|ol|o|gy [bækˌtıəriˈɔlədʒi US ˌtıriˈa:l ] n [U] the scientific study of bacteria >bacteriologist n >bacteriological [bækˌtıəriəˈlɔdʒıkəl US ˌtıriəˈla: ] adj …   Dictionary of contemporary English


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