 axiom of choice

Math.the axiom of set theory that given any collection of disjoint sets, a set can be so constructed that it contains one element from each of the given sets. Also called Zermelo's axiom; esp. Brit., multiplicative axiom.
* * *
sometimes called Zermelo's axiom of choicestatement in the language of set theory that makes it possible to form sets by choosing an element simultaneously from each member of an infinite collection of sets even when no algorithm exists for the selection. The axiom of choice has many mathematically equivalent formulations, some of which were not immediately realized to be equivalent. One version states that, given any collection of disjoint sets (sets having no common elements), there exists at least one set consisting of one element from each of the nonempty sets in the collection; collectively, these chosen elements make up the “choice set.” Another common formulation is to say that for any set S there exists a function f (called a “choice function”) such that, for any nonempty subset s of S, f(s) is an element of s.The axiom of choice was first formulated in 1904 by the German mathematician Ernst Zermelo in order to prove the “wellordering theorem” (every set can be given an order relationship, such as less than, under which it is well ordered; i.e., every subset has a first element [see set theory: Axioms for infinite and ordered sets (set theory)]). Subsequently, it was shown that making any one of three assumptions—the axiom of choice, the wellordering principle, or Zorn's lemma—enabled one to prove the other two; that is to say, all three are mathematically equivalent. The axiom of choice has the feature—not shared by other axioms of set theory—that it asserts the existence of a set without ever specifying its elements or any definite way to select them. In general, S could have many choice functions. The axiom of choice merely asserts that it has at least one, without saying how to construct it. This nonconstructive feature has led to some controversy regarding the acceptability of the axiom. See also foundations of mathematics: Nonconstructive arguments (mathematics, foundations of).The axiom of choice is not needed for finite sets since the process of choosing elements must come to an end eventually. For infinite sets, however, it would take an infinite amount of time to choose elements one by one. Thus, infinite sets for which there does not exist some definite selection rule require the axiom of choice (or one of its equivalent formulations) in order to proceed with the choice set. The English mathematicianphilosopher Bertrand Russell (Russell, Bertrand) gave the following succinct example of this distinction: “To choose one sock from each of infinitely many pairs of socks requires the Axiom of Choice, but for shoes the Axiom is not needed.” For example, one could simultaneously choose the left shoe from each member of the infinite set of shoes, but no rule exists to distinguish between the members of a pair of socks. Thus, without the axiom of choice, each sock would have to be chosen one by one—an eternal prospect.Nonetheless, the axiom of choice does have some counterintuitive consequences. The bestknown of these is the BanachTarski paradox. This shows that for a solid sphere there exists (in the sense that the axioms assert the existence of sets) a decomposition into a finite number of pieces that can be reassembled to produce a sphere with twice the radius of the original sphere. Of course, the pieces involved are nonmeasurable; that is, one cannot meaningfully assign volumes to them.In 1939 the Austrianborn American logician Kurt Gödel (Gödel, Kurt) proved that, if the other standard ZermeloFraenkel axioms (ZF; see the table—>) are consistent, then they do not disprove the axiom of choice. That is, the result of adding the axiom of choice to the other axioms (ZFC) remains consistent. Then in 1963 the American mathematician Paul Cohen (Cohen, Paul Joseph) completed the picture by showing, again under the assumption that ZF is consistent, that ZF does not yield a proof of the axiom of choice; that is, the axiom of choice is independent.In general, the mathematical community accepts the axiom of choice because of its utility and its agreement with intuition regarding sets. On the other hand, lingering unease with certain consequences (such as wellordering of the real numbers) has led to the convention of explicitly stating when the axiom of choice is utilized, a condition not imposed on the other axioms of set theory.Herbert Enderton* * *
Universalium. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Axiom of choice — This article is about the mathematical concept. For the band named after it, see Axiom of Choice (band). In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory stating that for every family of nonempty sets there exists a family of … Wikipedia
axiom of choice — Math. the axiom of set theory that given any collection of disjoint sets, a set can be so constructed that it contains one element from each of the given sets. Also called Zermelo s axiom; esp. Brit., multiplicative axiom. * * * axiom of choice,… … Useful english dictionary
axiom of choice — Date: 1942 an axiom in set theory that is equivalent to Zorn s lemma: for every collection of nonempty sets there is a function which chooses an element from each set … New Collegiate Dictionary
axiom of choice — noun One of the axioms in axiomatic set theory, equivalent to the statement that an arbitrary direct product of non empty sets is non empty … Wiktionary
Axiom of Choice (band) — Axiom of Choice is a world music group of Iranian émigrés who perform a fusion style incorporating Persian classical music and Western music. Led by Loga Ramin Torkian who plays a variant of a guitar of his own invention that is fretted to play… … Wikipedia
Axiom of choice (disambiguation) — Axiom of choice may refer to:*Axiom of choice, an axiom of set theory *Axiom of Choice (band), a world music group of Iranian émigrés … Wikipedia
Choice (disambiguation) — Choice consists of the mental process of thinking involved with the process of judging the merits of multiple options and selecting one of them for action. Choice may also refer to: Contents 1 Mathematics 2 Media 3 Other 4 … Wikipedia
Axiom of countable choice — The axiom of countable choice or axiom of denumerable choice, denoted ACω, is an axiom of set theory, similar to the axiom of choice. It states that any countable collection of non empty sets must have a choice function. Spelled out, this means… … Wikipedia
Axiom of determinacy — The axiom of determinacy (abbreviated as AD) is a possible axiom for set theory introduced by Jan Mycielski and Hugo Steinhaus in 1962. It refers to certain two person games of length ω with perfect information. AD states that every such game in… … Wikipedia
Axiom of global choice — In class theories, the axiom of global choice is a stronger variant of the axiom of choice which applies to proper classes as well as sets. Statement The axiom can be expressed in various ways which are equivalent: Weak form: Every class of… … Wikipedia