Augustinian


Augustinian
Augustinianism, Augustinism /aw gus"teuh niz'euhm/, n.
/aw'geuh stin"ee euhn/, adj.
1. pertaining to St. Augustine of Hippo, to his doctrines, or to any religious order following his rule.
n.
2. Rom. Cath. Ch. a member of any of several religious orders deriving their name and rule from St. Augustine.
3. a person who adopts the views or doctrines of St. Augustine.
[1595-1605; AUGUSTINE + -IAN]

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In the Roman Catholic church, a member of any of the religious orders and congregations whose constitutions are based on the Rule of St. Augustine, including the Hospitallers (Knights of Malta) and the Dominicans.

The two main branches of the Augustinians, however, are the Augustinian Hermits and the Augustinian Canons. The former was one of the four great mendicant orders of the Middle Ages, and its members (including Martin Luther) were active in European university life and ecclesiastical affairs. The latter became in the 11th century the first Roman Catholic order to combine clerical status with full common life. The order declined after the Reformation, but it continues missionary, educational, and hospital work. Other notable orders are the Augustinian Recollects (founded in the 16th century) and the Second Order of St. Augustine (1264) for nuns, both still active today.

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▪ Roman Catholic religious order
also called  Austin,  

      in the Roman Catholic Church, member of any of the religious orders and congregations of men and women whose constitutions are based on the Rule of St. Augustine (Augustine, Saint), instructions on the religious life written by Augustine, the great Western theologian, and widely disseminated after his death, AD 430. More specifically, the name is used to designate members of two main branches of Augustinians, namely, the Augustinian Canons and the Augustinian Hermits, with their female offshoots.

      The Augustinian Canons, or Austin Canons (in full, the Canons Regular of Saint Augustine), were, in the 11th century, the first religious order of men in the Roman Catholic Church to combine clerical status with a full common life. The moral impulse emanating from the Roman synods of 1059 and 1063 and the Gregorian Reform led many canons to give up private ownership and to live together according to monastic ideals. By 1150 the adoption of the Rule of St. Augustine by these canons was almost universal. The order grew and flourished until the Protestant Reformation, during which time many of its foundations perished. The French Revolution also put an end to a number of its houses. Modern emphasis has been on mission, educational, and hospital work.

      The Augustinian Hermits, or Austin Friars (in full, the Order of the Hermit Friars of Saint Augustine; O.S.A.), were one of the four great mendicant orders of the Middle Ages. Dispersed by the Vandal invasion of northern Africa (c. 428), a number of congregations of hermits who had been following the Rule of St. Augustine founded monasteries in central and northern Italy. These remained independent of one another until the 13th century, when Pope Innocent IV in 1244 established them as one order and when Alexander IV in 1256 called them from their solitary seclusion as hermits to an active lay apostolate in the cities. The order spread rapidly throughout Europe and took a prominent part in university life and ecclesiastical affairs; perhaps its most famous member was the Protestant Reformer Martin Luther in the 16th century. Its members now dedicate themselves to several activities, including foreign missions, as well as to the advancement of learning by teaching and scholarly research.

      An offshoot of the Augustinian Hermits are the Augustinian Recollects (O.A.R.), formed in the 16th century by friars who desired a rule of stricter observance and a return to the eremetic ideals of solitude and contemplation. In 1588 the monastery at Talavera de la Reina in Spain was designated for the Recollects, and Luis de León was directed to devise constitutions for their government; but the movement proved so popular that soon it required four monasteries. In 1602 the Recollects were established as a distinct province of the Augustinians and in 1912 as an independent order. They now engage in high school and college teaching, administer parishes, and conduct retreats and missions.

      Among nuns, the term Second Order of St. Augustine applies only to those nuns who are jurisdictionally dependent upon the Augustinian Friars. They were founded in 1264 and, until 1401, remained strictly cloistered, but at that date they began to accept third order affiliates—women who desired to perform apostolic works outside the cloister, in schools, hospitals, and missions.

      A distinct group is the Hospital Sisters of Hôtel-Dieu and Malestroit. Sisters following the Rule of St. Augustine were staffing the Hôtel-Dieu, in Paris, at least from about 1217. They not only survived the French Revolution but were even allowed to continue their work. Though expelled in 1907, they managed to open other hospitals and today maintain several institutions.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Augustinian — Au gus*tin i*an, a. Of or pertaining to St. Augustine, bishop of Hippo in Northern Africa (b. 354 d. 430), or to his doctrines. [1913 Webster] {Augustinian canons}, an order of monks once popular in England and Ireland; called also {regular… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Augustinian — [ô΄gəs tin′ē ən] adj. 1. of Saint Augustine of Hippo or his doctrines 2. designating or of any of several orders named for him n. 1. a follower of Saint Augustine of Hippo 2. a member of an Augustinian religious order Augustinianism n.… …   English World dictionary

  • Augustinian — Au gus*tin i*an, n. One of a class of divines, who, following St. Augustine, maintain that grace by its nature is effectual absolutely and creatively, not relatively and conditionally. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • augustinian — AUGUSTINIÁN, Ă I. adj. referitor la Sf. Augustin. II. adj., s. m. f. (călugăr) aparţinând unui grup de ordine catolice stabilite pe baza scrierilor Sf. Augustin; augustin. (< fr. augustinien) Trimis de raduborza, 15.09.2007. Sursa: MDN …   Dicționar Român

  • Augustinian — Monastic order named after St Augustine (of Hippo), one of the Fathers of the Church; the order followed the Rule of St Augustine and had two branches, *Augustinian canons and *Augustinian friars. They established themselves in England first near …   Dictionary of Medieval Terms and Phrases

  • Augustinian — Augustine Au*gus tine, Augustinian Au gus*tin i*an, n. (Eccl.) A member of one of the religious orders called after St. Augustine; an Austin friar. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Augustinian — I. noun Date: 1534 1. a member of an Augustinian order; specifically a friar of the Hermits of St. Augustine founded in 1256 and devoted to educational, missionary, and parish work 2. a follower of St. Augustine II. adjective Date: 1653 1. of or… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Augustinian — 1. adjective a) of, or relating to St Augustine of Hippo b) of, or relating to several religious orders influenced by him 2. noun a) a follower of St Augustine, of his doctrines b) a …   Wiktionary

  • Augustinian — [ˌɔ:gə stɪnɪən] adjective relating to St Augustine (354 430) or his doctrines. ↘relating to or denoting a religious order observing a rule derived from St Augustine s writings. noun a member of an Augustinian order. ↘an adherent of the doctrines… …   English new terms dictionary

  • Augustinian — Au•gus•tin•i•an [[t]ˌɔ gəˈstɪn i ən[/t]] adj. 1) rel pertaining to St. Augustine of Hippo, to his doctrines, or to any religious order following his rule 2) rel a member of any of the Roman Catholic Augustinian orders 3) rel a follower of St.… …   From formal English to slang


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