Auckland


Auckland
/awk"leuhnd/, n.
a seaport on N North Island, in New Zealand. 797,406.

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City (pop., 2001: 377,382; metro. area pop.: 1,158,891), North Island, New Zealand.

Located on Waitemata and Manukau harbours, it is the country's principal port and largest city. Founded in 1840 as New Zealand's capital and named for George Eden, earl of Auckland, it remained the capital until superseded by Wellington in 1865. It is a major manufacturing and shipping centre. A bridge links it with the growing northern shore suburbs and with Devonport, New Zealand's chief naval base.

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 city, Auckland regional council, north-central North Island, New Zealand. The country's largest city and its largest port, it occupies a narrow isthmus between Waitemata Harbour (east) and Manukau Harbour (southwest). It was established in 1840 by Governor William Hobson as the capital of the colonial government and was named for George Eden, earl of Auckland (Auckland, George Eden, earl of, 2nd Baron Auckland, 2nd Baron Auckland of Auckland, Baron Eden of Norwood), British first lord of the Admiralty and later governor-general of India. Incorporated as a borough in 1851, Auckland remained the capital until superseded by the city of Wellington in 1865. It was made a city in 1871. The most extensive urban area in New Zealand, Auckland also has the country's greatest concentration of indigenous Maori and has large numbers of Polynesians from other islands in the South Pacific.

 A focal point of road and rail transportation, the urban area is also served by New Zealand's leading international airport, at Mangere. Auckland's most important feature is Waitemata Harbour, a 70-square-mile (180-square-km) body of water that has maximum channel depths of 33 feet (10 metres) and serves overseas and intercoastal shipping. The port's principal exports include iron, steel, dairy products, and meat and hides. Petroleum, iron and steel products, sugar, wheat, and phosphates are imported. Other industries of the Auckland area include engineering, publishing, and metal trades; the manufacture of paint, glass, plastics, chemicals, cement, and a variety of consumer goods; vehicle assembly and boatbuilding; and food processing, brewing, and sugar refining. A large iron and steel mill was opened at Glenbrook (20 miles [32 km] south) in 1969. The Auckland Harbour Bridge (1959) links the city with the rapidly growing, primarily residential North Shore suburbs and with Devonport, the chief naval base and dockyard for New Zealand. Construction of a natural-gas pipeline running from the Maui field to Auckland was completed in 1977.

      Major institutions within the urban area include the War Memorial Museum, the Museum of Transport and Technology, the National Maritime Museum, the Auckland Art Gallery, the public library network, the University of Auckland (1957; from 1882 to 1957, Auckland University College, a constituent part of the University of New Zealand), the town hall, and several teacher-training colleges. Also in the locality are swimming and surfing beaches, several extinct volcanic cones, golf courses, sporting grounds, and parks and reserves. In 2000 and 2003 Auckland played host to the America's Cup yachting race finals, both events helping to boost tourism in the region. Pop. (2006) city, 404,658; (2005 est.) urban agglom., 1,241,600.

      regional council, northwestern North Island, New Zealand. It includes the city of Auckland and its metropolitan area. The region is surrounded by several fine harbours, including Kaipara Harbour to the north and Manukau Harbour to the south.

      When Europeans arrived in the early 19th century, the region was densely populated by Maori. European settlements were located predominantly around the shores of Hauraki Gulf or near the present site of the city of Auckland. In 1853 Auckland province was established; it had nearly 10,000 European settlers at the time, and the city of Auckland soon became an administrative, military, and trading centre for the entire agricultural hinterland. The province of Auckland was abolished in 1876.

      Much of the region has been cleared for agriculture, although dairying and sheep raising are also important. Manufacturing centres on sawmilling, food processing, steel mills, and allied industries. Area 2,339 square miles (6,059 square km). Pop. (2006) 1,321,074.

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Universalium. 2010.

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