asthma


asthma
/az"meuh, as"-/, n.
Pathol. a paroxysmal, often allergic disorder of respiration, characterized by bronchospasm, wheezing, and difficulty in expiration, often accompanied by coughing and a feeling of constriction in the chest. Also called bronchial asthma.
[1350-1400; ME < Gk: a panting (akin to aázein to breathe hard); r. ME asma < ML < Gk ásthma]

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Chronic disease with attacks of shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing from constriction and mucous-membrane swelling in the bronchi (air passageways in the lungs).

It is caused primarily by allergy or respiratory infection. Secondhand smoke can cause asthma in children. Asthma is common and runs in families; predisposition may be hereditary. In established asthmatics, exercise, stress, and sudden changes in temperature or humidity can bring on attacks. Attacks usually last from a half hour to several hours; severe attacks can be fatal. Corticosteroids can control asthma; injections of epinephrine can relieve acute attacks. Prevention involves avoiding exposure to allergens.

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 a chronic disorder of the lungs (lung) in which inflamed airways are prone to constrict, causing episodes of wheezing, chest tightness, coughing, and breathlessness that range in severity from mild to life-threatening.

      Asthmatic episodes may begin suddenly or may take days to develop. Although an initial episode can occur at any age, about half of all cases occur in persons younger than 10 years of age, boys being affected more often than girls. Among adults, however, women are affected more often than men. When asthma develops in childhood, it is often associated with an inherited susceptibility to allergens (allergen)—substances, such as pollen, dust mites (mite), or animal dander, that may induce an allergic reaction (allergy). In adults, asthma may develop in response to allergens, but viral infections, aspirin, weather conditions, and exercise may cause it as well. In addition, stress may exacerbate symptoms. Adults who develop asthma may also have chronic rhinitis, nasal polyps (nasal polyp), or sinusitis. Adult asthma is sometimes linked to exposure to certain materials in the workplace, such as chemicals, wood dusts, and grains. These substances provoke both allergic and nonallergic forms of the disease. In most of these cases, symptoms will subside if the causative agent is removed from the workplace.

      Asthma is classified based on the degree of symptom severity, which can be divided into four categories: mild intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent, and severe persistent. Although the mechanisms underlying an asthmatic episode are not fully understood, in general it is known that exposure to an inciting factor stimulates the release of chemicals from the immune system. These chemicals can cause spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle surrounding the bronchi, swelling and inflammation of the bronchial tubes, and excessive secretion of mucus into the airways. The inflamed, mucus-clogged airways act as a one-way valve—i.e., air is inspired but cannot be expired. The obstruction of airflow may resolve spontaneously or with treatment.

      A number of medications are used to prevent and control the symptoms of asthma and to reduce the frequency and severity of episodes. Asthma medications are categorized into three main types: anti-inflammatory agents, which suppress inflammation; bronchodilators, which relax smooth muscle constriction and open the airways; and leukotriene modifiers, which interrupt the chemical signaling within the body that leads to constriction and inflammation. These medications may be taken on a long-term daily basis to maintain and control persistent asthma (long-term control medications), or they may be used to provide rapid relief from constriction of airways (quick-relief medications). Long-term control medications include corticosteroids (corticoid), which are the most potent and effective anti-inflammatory medications available; cromolyn sodium and nedocromil, which are anti-inflammatory medications often prescribed for children; long-acting beta2-agonists and methylxanthines (e.g., theophylline), which are bronchodilators; and zileuton and zafirlukast, which are leukotriene modifiers. Quick-relief medications may include bronchodilators, such as short-acting beta2-agonists and ipratropium bromide, or systemic corticosteroids. Agents that block enzymes called phosphodiesterases, which are involved in mediating airway constriction and inflammation, are in clinical trials. These drugs are designed to be long-lasting—administered once per day via inhalation—and are expected to be safer than traditional medications, which may cause cardiovascular damage. A prolonged asthma attack that does not respond to medication is called status asthmaticus; a person with this condition must be hospitalized to receive oxygen and other treatment.

      In addition to managing asthma with medications, persons who suffer from the disease are advised to minimize their exposure to the substances that trigger asthma. The ability to recognize the early warning signs of an impending episode is important, and individuals can monitor the level of airflow obstruction in their lungs by using a pocket-size device called a peak flow meter.

      In developed countries and especially in urban areas, the number of asthma cases has increased steadily. Today asthma affects more than 7 percent of children and about 9 percent of adults. Reasons for this dramatic surge in asthma cases, particularly among children, are not entirely clear. Air pollution, crowded living conditions, smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, and even cockroaches (cockroach) have been blamed for the increase. However, in many underdeveloped tropical regions of the world, very few people are affected by allergies or asthma. In those areas, millions of people are infected with Necator americanus, a species of hookworm. Studies have shown that hookworms reduce the risk of asthma by decreasing the activity of the human host's immune system. In 2006 a clinical trial conducted in a small number of patients demonstrated that deliberate infection with 10 hookworm larvae, too few to cause hookworm disease, can relieve symptoms of allergy and asthma. Further investigation of this “helminthic therapy” in larger sample populations is under way.

      There has been some controversy concerning increased rates of asthma in countries where childhood vaccination is widespread. Studies have indicated that only one vaccine, pertussis vaccine, may give rise to asthma; however, this positive association has not been successfully confirmed. In a reverse scenario, protection against asthma conferred by BCG vaccination (BCG vaccine) (for defense against tuberculosis) has been proved only in children with a history of allergic rhinitis (hay fever). Antibiotics (antibiotic) may also interfere with immune development. Children who are given broad-spectrum antibiotics (effective against multiple microorganisms) before two years of age are three times more likely to develop asthma than are children who are not given such antibiotics.

John Hansen-Flaschen
 

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Universalium. 2010.

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