Arhat


Arhat
Arhatship, n.
/ahrdd"heuht/, n.
a Buddhist who has attained Nirvana through rigorous discipline and ascetic practices. Cf. Bodhisattva.
Also, Arhant /ahr"heuhnt/.
[1865-70; < Skt: meriting respect, deriv. of arhati (he) merits]

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or arahant

In Buddhism, one who has gained insight into the true nature of existence, has achieved nirvana, and will not be reborn.

Theravada Buddhism regards becoming an arhat as the goal of spiritual progress. It holds that a seeker must pass through three earlier stages before being reborn in a heaven as an arhat. Mahayana Buddhism criticizes the goal of becoming an arhat as selfish and considers the bodhisattva to be a higher goal because the bodhisattva remains in the cycle of rebirths to work for the good of others. This divergence of opinion is one of the fundamental differences between Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism.

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Sanskrit“one who is worthy”, Pali  arahant 

      in Buddhism, a perfected person, one who has gained insight into the true nature of existence and has achieved nirvana (spiritual enlightenment). The arhat, having freed himself from the bonds of desire, will not be reborn.

      The state of an arhat is considered in the Theravada tradition to be the proper goal of a Buddhist. Four stages of attainment are described in Pali texts: (1) the state of the “stream-enterer”—i.e., a convert (sotapanna)—achieved by overcoming false beliefs and doubts regarding the Buddha, the teaching (dhamma), and the order (sangha), (2) the “once-returner” (sakadagamin), who will be reborn only once in this realm, a state attained by diminishing lust, hatred, and illusion, (3) the “nonreturner” (anagamin), who, after death, will be reborn in a higher heaven, where he will become an arhat, a state attained by overcoming sensuous desire and ill will, in addition to the attainments of the first two stages, and (4) the arhat. Except under extraordinary circumstances, a man or woman can become an arhat only while a monk or nun.

      Mahayana Buddhists criticize the arhat ideal on the grounds that the bodhisattva is a higher goal of perfection, for the bodhisattva vows to become a buddha in order to work for the good of others. This divergence of opinion continues to be one of the fundamental differences between the Theravada and Mahayana traditions.

      In China, as well as in Korea, Japan, and Tibet, arhats (Chinese lohan, Japanese rakan) were often depicted on the walls of temples in groups of 16 (later enlarged to 18, or even 500). They represent 16 close disciples of the Buddha who were entrusted by him to remain in the world and not to enter nirvana until the coming of the next buddha, in order to provide people with objects of worship.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • ARHAT — ou ARHANT Le terme arhat ou arhant (de la racine arh , mériter), que l’on peut traduire par «saint», désigne dans le bouddhisme ancien le stade le plus élevé dans la progression religieuse pour les adeptes du Petit Véhicule, stade qui fait suite… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Arhat — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Un jardín con varias estatuillas de arhats (Templo Hsi Lai, California) En el budismo, arhat o arahant es alguien que ha ganado el entendimiento profundo sobre la verdadera naturaleza de la existencia …   Wikipedia Español

  • Arhat — n. 1. 1 a Buddhist who has attained nirvana. Syn: Arhant, lohan. [WordNet 1.5] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Arhat — [ arat] der; [s], s <zu sanskr. árhat »würdig«> der vollkommen Erlöste im ↑Dschainismus u. ↑Buddhismus, der nach seinem Tod ins ↑Nirwana eingeht …   Das große Fremdwörterbuch

  • arhat — àrhat m DEFINICIJA rel. u budizmu i džainizmu, redovnik koji je postigao četvrti stupanj savršenstva …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • arhat — [är′hət] n. Buddhism one who has attained nirvana and, thus, is no longer subject to the cycle of rebirth …   English World dictionary

  • Arhat — Holzplastik eines Arhat (18. Jahrhundert, Hōon ji Tempel, Morioka, Japan) Arhat ist ein religiöser Titel für einen vollendeten buddhistischen Heiligen, der vollständig Gier, Hass und Verblendung abgelegt hat und der die 10 Fesseln… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Arhat — Quatre êtres nobles Les quatre êtres nobles (sanskrit : āryapudgala) sont des pratiquants ayant tous atteint un point élevé dans la pratique du bouddhisme. Cette distinction, qui est propre au bouddhisme originel et au theravada, pose deux… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • arhat —    In the Jain tradition (see JAINISM), an arhat (one worthy of worship) is an omniscient being who teaches in the world. As Jains do not believe in living liberated beings (jivanmukta), the arhat while living is not released from the cycle of… …   Encyclopedia of Hinduism

  • Arhat — In the sramanic traditions of ancient India (most notably those of Mahavira and Gautama Buddha) arhat (Sanskrit) or arahant (Pali) signified a spiritual practitioner who had to use an expression common in the tipitaka laid down the burden and… …   Wikipedia


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