aphasia


aphasia
/euh fay"zheuh/, n. Pathol.
the loss of a previously held ability to speak or understand spoken or written language, due to disease or injury of the brain.
[1865-70; < Gk: speechlessness, equiv. to a- A-6 + phat(ós) spoken (deriv. of phánai to speak) + -ia -IA]

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Defect in the expression and comprehension of words, caused by damage to the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain.

It can result from head trauma, tumour, stroke, or infection. Symptoms vary with the brain area involved, and the ability to put words in a meaningful order may be lost. Speech therapy may be useful. In some cases, improvement may be due to assumption of some language functions by other areas of the brain.

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also called  dysphasia  

      defect in the expression and comprehension of language caused by damage to the temporal and the frontal lobes of the brain. Aphasia can be caused by a head injury, a tumour, a stroke, or an infection. Symptoms vary with the location and extent of the brain tissues involved.

      Damage to the frontal lobe may result in Broca aphasia. Individuals with this form of aphasia are able to comprehend speech but have great difficulty expressing their thoughts. People with Broca aphasia speak in short phrases that include only nouns and verbs (telegraphic speech). Individuals with Wernicke aphasia, which may result from damage to the temporal lobe, speak in long, garbled sentences (word salad) and have poor speech comprehension. Global aphasia may result from extensive brain damage. Individuals with global aphasia exhibit symptoms of both Broca and Wernicke aphasia.

      Speech therapy may be useful to treat aphasia. In some instances, improvement may be due to assumption of some language functions by other areas of the brain; recovery is usually incomplete, however.

Robert Joynt
 

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • aphasia — [ə fā′zhə, ə fā′zhē ə, ə fā′zē ə] n. [ModL < Gr < aphatos, unuttered < a , not + phatos < phanai, to say: see PHONO ] total or partial loss of the power to use or understand words, usually caused by brain disease or injury aphasic [ə… …   English World dictionary

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  • aphasia — /afeyzh(iy)a/ Loss of the faculty or power of articulate speech. A condition in which the patient, while retaining intelligence and understanding and with the organs of speech unimpaired, is unable (in motor aphasia ) to utter articulate words,… …   Black's law dictionary

  • aphasia — /afeyzh(iy)a/ Loss of the faculty or power of articulate speech. A condition in which the patient, while retaining intelligence and understanding and with the organs of speech unimpaired, is unable (in motor aphasia ) to utter articulate words,… …   Black's law dictionary

  • Aphasia — Literally aphasia means no speech. Aphasia can apply to a defect in expression or comprehension. * * * Impaired or absent comprehension or production of, or communication by, speech, writing, or signs, due to an acquired lesion of the dominant… …   Medical dictionary

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  • aphasia — noun /əˈfeɪzɪə/ A partial or total loss of language skills due to brain damage. Usually, damage to the left perisylvian region, including Brocas area and Wernikes area, causes aphasia. The Doctor came over in three minutes, and heard the story.… …   Wiktionary


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