antitoxin


antitoxin
/an'ti tok"sin, an'tee-/, n.
1. a substance, formed in the body, that counteracts a specific toxin.
2. the antibody formed in immunization with a given toxin, used in treating certain infectious diseases or in immunizing against them.
[1890-95; ANTI- + TOXIN]

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Antibody formed in the body in reaction to a bacterial toxin, which it can neutralize.

People who have recovered from bacterial diseases often develop specific antitoxins that give them immunity against recurrence. Injecting an animal (usually a horse) with increasing doses of toxin produces a high concentration of antitoxin in the blood. The resulting highly concentrated preparation of antitoxins is called an antiserum. The first antitoxin developed (1890) was specific to diphtheria; today, antitoxins are also used to treat botulism, dysentery, gas gangrene, and tetanus.

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      antibody, formed in the body by the introduction of a bacterial poison, or toxin, and capable of neutralizing the toxin. People who have recovered from bacterial illnesses often develop specific antitoxins that confer immunity against recurrence.

      For medical use in treating human infectious diseases, antitoxins are produced by injecting an animal with toxin; the animal, most commonly a horse, is given repeated small doses of toxin until a high concentration of the antitoxin builds up in the blood. The resulting highly concentrated preparation of antitoxins is called an antiserum.

      The first antitoxin, to diphtheria, was discovered in 1890 by Emil von Behring and Shibasaburo Kitasato (Kitasato Shibasaburo), for which Behring received the 1901 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Today, antitoxins are used in the treatment of botulism, diphtheria, dysentery, gas gangrene, and tetanus. If the toxin is a venom, the antitoxin formed, or the antiserum containing it, is called an antivenin. See also antiserum.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • antitoxin — [an΄titäks′in] n. 1. a circulating antibody formed by the body, as active immunity, to act against a specific toxin 2. a sterile solution containing an antitoxin: it is taken from the blood serum of an immunized animal or person and injected into …   English World dictionary

  • Antitoxin — An ti*tox in, Antitoxine An ti*tox ine, n. [Pref. anti + toxin.] A substance (sometimes the product of a specific micro organism and sometimes naturally present in the blood or tissues of an animal), capable of producing immunity from certain… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • antitoxin — antitoxin. См. антитоксин. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • antitoxin — index cure Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • antitoxin — (n.) substance neutralizing poisons, 1892, from ANTI (Cf. anti ) + TOXIN (Cf. toxin). Coined in 1890 by German bacteriologist Emil von Behring (1854 1917). ANTITOXIC (Cf. Antitoxic) in this sense is from 1860 …   Etymology dictionary

  • antitoxin — [n] agent for negating the effect of an infection or poison antibiotic, antibody, antipoison, antiseptic, antiserum, antivenin, counteractant, counteragent, medicine, neutralizer, preventive, serum, vaccine; concept 307 …   New thesaurus

  • Antitoxin — An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin. Antitoxins are produced by certain animals, plants, and bacteria. Although they are most effective in neutralizing toxins, they can kill bacteria and other… …   Wikipedia

  • Antitoxin — An antibody capable of destroying microorganisms including viruses and bacteria. An antitoxin provides passive immunity. For example, if a child gets whooping cough (diphtheria), an antitoxin prepared in horses against diphtheria may be useful in …   Medical dictionary

  • Antitoxin — Diphtherie Antitoxin historisch Ein Antitoxin ist ein Gegengift, das bereits im Körper vorhandene Gifte unschädlich macht. Meist wird es aus dem Serum von Genesenden oder von großen Labortieren, wie Pferd und Rind gewonnen. Chemisch gesehen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Antitoxin — Antidot (fachsprachlich); Gegengift; Gegenmittel; Antidoton (fachsprachlich) * * * An|ti|to|xin 〈n. 11; Med.〉 im Blutserum enthaltener Antikörper [<grch. anti „gegen“ + toxikon „Gift“] * * * An|ti|to|xin: [↑ …   Universal-Lexikon


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