aniline


aniline
/an"l in, -uyn'/, n.
1. Also called aniline oil, aminobenzine, phenylamine. Chem. a colorless, oily, slightly water-soluble liquid, C6H5NH2, usually derived from nitrobenzene by reduction: used chiefly in the synthesis of dyes and drugs.
adj.
2. pertaining to or derived from aniline: aniline colors. Also, anilin /an"l in/.
[1840-50; ANIL + -INE2]

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One of the most important organic bases, parent substance for many dyes and drugs.

Pure aniline is a highly poisonous, oily, colourless liquid with a distinctive odour. First obtained (1826) from indigo, it is now prepared synthetically. It is a weakly basic primary aromatic amine and participates in many reactions with other compounds. It is used to make chemicals used in producing rubber, dyes and intermediates, photographic chemicals, urethane foams, pharmaceuticals, explosives, herbicides, and fungicides as well as to make chemicals used in petroleum refining.

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      an organic base used to make dyes, drugs, explosives, plastics, and photographic and rubber chemicals.

      Aniline was first obtained in 1826 by the destructive distillation of indigo. Its name is taken from the specific name of the indigo-yielding plant Indigofera anil (Indigofera suffruticosa); its chemical formula is C6H5NH2.

      Aniline is prepared commercially by the catalytic hydrogenation of nitrobenzene or by the action of ammonia on chlorobenzene. The reduction of nitrobenzene can also be carried out with iron borings in aqueous acid.

      A primary aromatic amine, aniline is a weak base and forms salts with mineral acids. In acidic solution, nitrous acid converts aniline into a diazonium salt that is an intermediate in the preparation of a great number of dyes and other organic compounds of commercial interest. When aniline is heated with organic acids, it gives amides, called anilides, such as acetanilide from aniline and acetic acid. Monomethylaniline and dimethylaniline can be prepared from aniline and methyl alcohol. Catalytic reduction of aniline yields cyclohexylamine. Various oxidizing agents convert aniline to quinone, azobenzene, nitrosobenzene, p-aminophenol, and the phenazine dye aniline black.

      Pure aniline is a highly poisonous, oily, colourless substance with a pleasant odour.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • ANILINE — L’aniline est un composé organique renfermant une fonction amine primaire, c’est à dire un atome d’azote lié à un carbone et à deux hydrogènes; l’atome de carbone appartenant à un noyau benzénique, il s’agit d’une amine aromatique, la plus simple …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Aniline — An i*line, a. Made from, or of the nature of, aniline. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Aniline — An i*line (?; 277), n. [See {Anil}.] (Chem.) An organic base belonging to the phenylamines. It may be regarded as ammonia in which one hydrogen atom has been replaced by the radical phenyl. It is a colorless, oily liquid, originally obtained from …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • aniline — (n.) chemical base used in making colorful dyes, 1843, coined 1841 by German chemist Carl Julius Fritzsche (1808 1871) and adopted by Hofmann, ultimately from Port. anil the indigo shrub, from Arabic an nil the indigo, assimilated from al nil,… …   Etymology dictionary

  • aniline — ► NOUN ▪ an oily liquid found in coal tar, used in the manufacture of dyes, drugs, and plastics. ORIGIN from an Arabic word meaning indigo (from which it was originally obtained) …   English terms dictionary

  • aniline — [an′ə lin, an′əlēn΄, an′əlīn΄] n. [Ger anilin: see ANIL & INE3] a colorless, poisonous, oily liquid, C6H5NH2, a derivative of benzene used in making dyes, resins, rubber additives, fungicides, herbicides, etc., and in organic synthesis …   English World dictionary

  • Aniline — For other uses, see Aniline (disambiguation). Aniline …   Wikipedia

  • Aniline — Cet article possède un paronyme, voir : Alanine. Aniline …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Aniline — A chemical compound implicated, along with o toluidine, in the causation of bladder cancer. Aniline and o toluidine, both aromatic amines, are used in the manufacture of a variety of dyes, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and chemicals employed in… …   Medical dictionary

  • aniline — /ˈænələn / (say anuhluhn) noun 1. an aromatic amine, aminobenzene, C6H5NH2, used in the manufacture of plastics, resins, etc. –adjective 2. relating to or derived from aniline: aniline colours. {anil + ine2} …   Australian English dictionary


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