Amon


Amon
/ah"meuhn/, n. Egyptian Myth.
Amen.

* * *

or Amen

Egyptian deity revered as king of the gods.

Amon may have originated as a local deity at Khmun in Middle Egypt. His cult spread to Thebes, where he became patron of the pharaohs by Mentuhotep I's reign (2008–1957 BC) and was identified with the sun god Re. Represented as a human, a ram, or both, Amon-Re was worshiped with the goddess Mut and the youthful god Khons. Akhenaton directed his reforms against the cult of Amon, but with little success, and Amon's status was restored in the 14th–13th century BC. In the New Kingdom, Amon came to be seen as one of a triad with Ptah and Re, and in the 11th–10th century BC as a universal god who intervened in affairs of state by speaking through oracles.

* * *

▪ Egyptian god
also spelled  Amun,  Amen , or  Ammon 
 Egyptian deity who was revered as king of the gods.

      Amon may have been originally one of the eight deities of the Hermopolite (Hermopolis Magna) creation myth; his cult reached Thebes, where he became the patron of the pharaohs by the reign of Mentuhotep I (2008–1957 BCE). At that date he was already identified with the sun god Re of Heliopolis and, as Amon-Re, was received as a national god. Represented in human form, sometimes with a ram's head, or as a ram, Amon-Re was worshipped as part of the Theban triad, which included a goddess, Mut, and a youthful god, Khons. His temple at Karnak was among the largest and wealthiest in the land from the New Kingdom (1539–c. 1075 BCE) onward. Local forms of Amon were also worshipped at the Temple of Luxor on the east bank of Thebes and at Madīnat Habu (Medinet Habu) on the west bank.

      Amon's name meant the Hidden One, and his image was painted blue to denote invisibility. This attribute of invisibility led to a popular belief during the New Kingdom in the knowledge and impartiality of Amon, making him a god for those who felt oppressed.

      Amon's influence was, in addition, closely linked to the political well-being of Egypt. During the Hyksos domination (c. 1630–c. 1523 BCE), the princes of Thebes sustained his worship. Following the Theban victory over the Hyksos and the creation of an empire, Amon's stature and the wealth of his temples grew. In the late 18th dynasty Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV) directed his religious reform against the traditional cult of Amon, but he was unable to convert people from their belief in Amon and the other gods, and, under Tutankhamen, Ay, and Horemheb (1332–1292 BCE), Amon was gradually restored as the god of the empire and patron of the pharaoh.

      In the New Kingdom, religious speculation among Amon's priests led to the concept of Amon as part of a triad (with Ptah and Re) or as a single god of whom all the other gods, even Ptah and Re, were manifestations. Under the sacerdotal state ruled by the priests of Amon at Thebes (c. 1075–c. 950 BCE), Amon evolved into a universal god who intervened through oracles in many affairs of state.

      The succeeding 22nd and 23rd dynasties, the invasion of Egypt by Assyria (671–c. 663 BCE), and the sack of Thebes (c. 663 BCE) did not reduce the stature of the cult, which had acquired a second main centre at Tanis in the Nile River delta. Moreover, the worship of Amon had become established among the inhabitants of Kush in the Sudan, who were accepted by Egyptian worshippers of Amon when they invaded Egypt and ruled as the 25th dynasty (715–664 BCE). From this period onward, resistance to foreign occupation of Egypt was strongest in Thebes. Amon's cult spread to the oases, especially Siwa (Siwa Oasis) in Egypt's western desert, where Amon was linked with Jupiter. Alexander the Great won acceptance as pharaoh by consulting the oracle at Siwa, and he also rebuilt the sanctuary of Amon's temple at Luxor. The early Ptolemaic rulers contained Egyptian nationalism by supporting the temples, but, starting with Ptolemy IV Philopator in 207 BCE, nationalistic rebellions in Upper Egypt erupted. During the revolt of 88–85 BCE, Ptolemy IX Soter II sacked Thebes, dealing Amon's cult a severe blow. In 27 BCE a strong earthquake devastated the Theban temples, while in the Greco-Roman world the cult of Isis and Osiris gradually displaced that of Amon.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Amón — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Para otros usos de este término, véase Amón (desambiguación). Para el músico apodado Amen, véase: Jussi Sydänmaa. Amón (Amun, en inglés) «El oculto», símbolo del poder creador y «Padre de todos los vientos» en la… …   Wikipedia Español

  • AMON — AM D’origine obscure hermopolitaine ou thébaine , le dieu égyptien Amon n’est d’abord qu’une divinité tout à fait secondaire, à la fonction mal définie. Son extraordinaire faveur fut liée à l’ascension des princes thébains. Dieu dynastique sous… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Amon — can refer to:* Amun, an Egyptian deity * Amon (demon) * Amon (Formula One team) * the former name of Deicide (band) * the word for mountain in Sindarin, an artificial language created by J. R. R. Tolkien * a governor of Samaria in the time of… …   Wikipedia

  • Amon — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Para el dios de la mitología egipcia, véase: Amón. Amon es una escudería de fórmula 1 creada por el piloto neozelandés Chris Amon en 1974. AMON Chris Amon Racing Chris Amon …   Wikipedia Español

  • Amón — V. «cuerno de Amón». * * * Amón. □ V. cuerno de Amón. * * * Amón puede referirse a: 1. En la mitología egipcia, Amón (el oculto), también llamado Ammón, es la principal divinidad de la religión egipcia de cuyo nombre tomaron el suyo multitud de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • AMON — (Heb. אָמוֹן, אָמֹן), son of manasseh ; became king of Judah (642–640 B.C.E.) at the age of 22. The author of Chronicles considered the transgressions of Amon to have been more numerous than those of his father Manasseh (II Chron. 33:23). The… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Amon-Re — Amon Rê Cet article fait partie de la série Dieux égyptiens Présentation Par ordre alphabétique Par relation Par ville Par symbole …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Amon-Râ — Amon Rê Cet article fait partie de la série Dieux égyptiens Présentation Par ordre alphabétique Par relation Par ville Par symbole …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Amon-Rê — Divinité égyptienne Principale ville de culte Ouaset, Karnak modifier …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Amon-rê — Cet article fait partie de la série Dieux égyptiens Présentation Par ordre alphabétique Par relation Par ville Par symbole …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Amon — Amón V. «cuerno de Amón». * * * Amón. □ V. cuerno de Amón. * * * Escudería de fórmula 1 creada por el piloto neozelandés Chris Amon en 1974. * * * (egipcio Amun, gr. Ammon) ► MITOLOGÍA Divinidad egipcia, identificada por los griegos con Zeus y… …   Enciclopedia Universal


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.