alkylation


alkylation
/al'keuh lay"sheuhn/, n. Chem.
1. the replacement of a hydrogen atom in an organic compound by an alkyl group.
2. the addition of a paraffin to an olefin, done in the manufacture of gasoline.
[1895-1900; ALKYL + -ATION]

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      in petroleum refining, chemical process in which light, gaseous hydrocarbons are combined to produce high-octane components of gasoline. The light hydrocarbons consist of olefins (olefin) such as propylene and butylene and isoparaffins such as isobutane. These compounds are fed into a reactor, where, under the influence of a sulfuric-acid or hydrofluoric-acid catalyst, they combine to form a mixture of heavier hydrocarbons. The liquid fraction of this mixture, known as alkylate, consists mainly of isooctane, a compound that lends excellent antiknock characteristics to unleaded gasolines.

      Alkylation units were installed in petroleum refineries in the 1930s, but the process became especially important during World War II, when there was a great demand for aviation gasoline. It is now used in combination with fractional distillation, catalytic cracking, and isomerization to increase a refinery's yield of automotive gasoline.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • alkylation — ● alkylation ou alcoylation nom féminin Substitution, dans une molécule, d un atome d hydrogène par un radical alkyle. (C est une des réactions les plus importantes de la synthèse organique et de la pétrochimie.) ⇒ALKYLATION, subst. fém. CHIM.… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • alkylation — alkylation. См. алкилирование. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • alkylation — [al΄kə lā′shən] n. the introduction of the alkyl group into hydrocarbons, esp. in petroleum refining processes for producing high octane hydrocarbons alkylate [al΄kəlāt΄] n., vt. alkylated, alkylating …   English World dictionary

  • Alkylation — Alkylating agent redirects here. For the class of drugs, see alkylating antineoplastic agent. Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another. The alkyl group may be transferred as an alkyl carbocation, a free radical, a …   Wikipedia

  • Alkylation — L alkylation est une réaction chimique constituée du transfert d un groupement alkyle d une molécule organique à une autre. Elle conduit donc à l augmentation du nombre d atomes de carbone d un composé organique. Au cours d un procédé classique… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • alkylation — 1. A process for manufacturing high octane blending components used in unleaded petrol or gasoline (RON 95,97,98). 2. A refinery process for chemically combining isoparaffin with olefin hydrocarbons. The product, alkylate, has high octane value… …   Petroleum refining glossary

  • alkylation — alkilinimas statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Alkilo grupės įjungimas į molekulę. atitikmenys: angl. alkylation rus. алкилирование …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • alkylation — noun Date: 1895 the act or process of introducing one or more alkyl groups into a compound (as to increase octane number in a motor fuel) • alkylate transitive verb …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • alkylation — noun Any reaction in which an alkyl group is added to a molecule; used in the production of high octane petroleum fuels. See Also: alkylate, alkylated …   Wiktionary

  • alkylation — Substitution of an alkyl radical for a hydrogen atom; e.g., introduction of a side chain into an aromatic compound. * * * al·kyl·a·tion (al″kə laґshən) the substitution of an alkyl group for an active hydrogen atom in an organic… …   Medical dictionary