alderman


alderman
aldermancy, aldermanship, n.aldermanic /awl'deuhr man"ik/, adj.
/awl"deuhr meuhn/, n., pl. aldermen.
1. a member of a municipal legislative body, esp. of a municipal council.
2. (in England) one of the members, chosen by the elected councilors, in a borough or county council.
3. Early Eng. Hist.
a. a chief.
b. (later) the chief magistrate of a county or group of counties.
4. Northern U.S. Slang. a pot belly.
[bef. 900; ME; OE (e)aldormann, equiv. to ealdor chief, patriarch (eald OLD + -or n. suffix) + mann MAN1]
Usage. See -man.

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      member of the legislative body of a municipal corporation in England and the United States. In Anglo-Saxon England, ealdormen, or aldermen, were high-ranking officials of the crown who exercised judicial, administrative, or military functions. Earls, the governors of shires (counties), and other persons of distinction were among those who received the title of alderman. Later the title was used to designate the chief magistrate of a county or group of counties. Under legislation that reformed English local government in the 19th century, the term alderman was used to designate one type of membership in borough, municipal, and county councils. Of these councils' two types of members, councillors were elected by the voters, while aldermen were elected by the councillors. These aldermen had legislative, administrative, and some judicial functions. Because it was viewed as undemocratic, the office of alderman was abolished throughout England (except in the government of the City of London) by the Local Government Act of 1972.

      In the American colonial period, city councils resembled their British prototypes, in which aldermen and councillors sat together as one body under the chairmanship of the mayor. In addition to their legislative duties, aldermen exercised judicial power in minor civil and criminal cases. In most colonial boroughs, both aldermen and councilmen were chosen by the voters, a practice that became universal in the period of American independence. In the 19th century, when bicameral legislatures were common in city governments, the aldermen formed one legislative chamber and the councillors the other.

      In the 20th century, the title of alderman was typically used for members of the legislature in those cities that used a mayor-council form of government. In this type of system, aldermen were usually elected by wards rather than in city-wide contests. By contrast, members of the legislature in cities that used the commissioner or council-manager types of government were usually referred to as commissioners or councilmen. These titles have gradually replaced that of alderman in most American city governments, whatever their organizational plan.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • alderman — ● alderman, aldermen ou aldermans nom masculin (mot anglais) Magistrat d un conseil municipal en Grande Bretagne, en Irlande et aux États Unis, ou d un conseil de comté dans le Royaume Uni. (Le terme vient d un vieux mot anglo saxon qui désignait …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Alderman — ist der historische Titel eines Beigeordneten auf den britischen Inseln der historische Leiter eines Shire im frühen England, siehe Ealdorman Alderman ist der von Ältermann abgeleitete Familienname folgender Personen: Fred Alderman (1905–1998),… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • alderman — al·der·man / ȯl dər mən/ n: a member of a city legislative body Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of Law. Merriam Webster. 1996. alderman …   Law dictionary

  • Alderman — Al der*man ([add]l d[ e]r*man), n.; pl. {Aldermen}. [AS. aldormon, ealdorman; ealdor an elder + man. See {Elder}, n.] 1. A senior or superior; a person of rank or dignity. [Obs.] [1913 Webster] Note: The title was applied, among the Anglo Saxons …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Alderman — (spr. Ahldermänn, vom angelsächsischen Ealdormen), 1) in England unter den Angelsachsen der Vorsitzende der Grafschaftsgerichte neben dem Bischof so wie in Kriegs u. Friedenszeiten der oberste Beamte der Grafschaft; er ward vom König gewählt,… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Alderman — (spr. aoldermän; angelsächs. Aldorman, »Ältester«), im Angelsächsischen Vorsteher einer Genossenschaft, besonders aber Titel der Oberbeamten der Kreise oder Grafschaften (shires) und der Ältesten (senatores) des Reiches, die, anfangs von den… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Alderman — (engl., spr. áhldrmänn, d.i. Ältester), bei den Angelsachsen Oberbeamter einer Grafschaft, nach der dän. Eroberung Earl (Jarl) genannt; jetzt in England und Nordamerika Mitglied des Stadtrats …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • alderman — ALDERMAN. s. masc. Nom qu on donne en Angleterre à certains Officiers municipaux …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • alderman — (n.) O.E. aldormonn (Mercian), ealdormann (W.Saxon) ruler, prince, chief; chief officer of a shire, from aldor, ealder patriarch (comparative of ald old; see OLD (Cf. old)) + monn, mann man (see MAN (Cf. man) (n.)). A relic of the days when the… …   Etymology dictionary

  • alderman — ► NOUN 1) chiefly historical a co opted member of an English county or borough council, next in status to the Mayor. 2) (also alderwoman) N. Amer. & Austral. an elected member of a city council. DERIVATIVES aldermanship noun. ORIGIN Old English,… …   English terms dictionary

  • alderman — [ôl′dər mən] n. pl. aldermen [ôl′dərmən] [ME < OE ealdorman, chief, prince < eald, OLD + man, MAN] 1. in some U.S. cities, a member of the municipal council, usually representing a certain district or ward 2. in England and Wales before… …   English World dictionary


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