absolutism


absolutism
absolutist, n., adj.absolutistic, adj.absolutistically, adv.
/ab"seuh looh tiz'euhm/, n.
1. the principle or the exercise of complete and unrestricted power in government.
2. any theory holding that values, principles, etc., are absolute and not relative, dependent, or changeable.
[1745-55]
Syn. 1. totalitarianism.

* * *

Political doctrine and practice of unlimited, centralized authority and absolute sovereignty, especially as vested in a monarch.

Its essence is that the ruling power is not subject to regular challenge or check by any judicial, legislative, religious, economic, or electoral agency. Though it has been used throughout history, the form that developed in early modern Europe (16th–18th century) became the prototype; Louis XIV is seen as the epitome of European absolutism. Religious authority was assumed by the monarch, who became the head of the church as well as the state, on the basis that the right to rule came from God (see divine kingship). See also authoritarianism, dictatorship, totalitarianism.

* * *

 the political doctrine and practice of unlimited, centralized authority and absolute sovereignty, as vested especially in a monarch (monarchy) or dictator (dictatorship). The essence of an absolutist system is that the ruling power is not subject to regularized challenge or check by any other agency, be it judicial, legislative, religious, economic, or electoral. King Louis XIV (1643–1715) of France furnished the most familiar assertion of absolutism when he said, “L'état, c'est moi” (“I am the state”). Absolutism has existed in various forms in all parts of the world, including in Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler (Hitler, Adolf) and in the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin (Stalin, Joseph).

      A brief treatment of absolutism follows. For full treatment, see Absolutism (Europe, history of).

      The most commonly studied form of absolutism is absolute monarchy, which originated in early modern Europe (Europe, history of) and was based on the strong individual leaders of the new nation-states that were created at the breakup of the medieval order. The power of these states was closely associated with the power of their rulers; to strengthen both, it was necessary to curtail the restraints on centralized government that had been exercised by the church, feudal lords, and medieval customary law. By claiming the absolute authority of the state against such former restraints, the monarch as head of state claimed his own absolute authority.

      By the 16th century monarchical absolutism prevailed in much of western Europe, and it was widespread in the 17th and 18th centuries. Besides France, whose absolutism was epitomized by Louis XIV, absolutism existed in a variety of other European countries, including Spain, Prussia, and Austria.

      The most common defense of monarchical absolutism, known as “the divine right of kings” theory, asserted that kings derived their authority from God. This view could justify even tyrannical rule as divinely ordained punishment, administered by rulers, for human sinfulness. In its origins, the divine-right theory may be traced to the medieval conception of God's award of temporal power to the political ruler, while spiritual power was given to the head of the Roman Catholic church. However, the new national monarchs asserted their authority in all matters and tended to become heads of church as well as of state, as did King Henry VIII when he became head of the newly created Church of England in the 16th century. Their power was absolute in a way that was impossible to achieve for medieval monarchs, who were confronted by a church that was essentially a rival centre of authority.

 More pragmatic arguments than that of divine right were also advanced in support of absolutism. According to some political theorists, complete obedience to a single will is necessary to maintain order and security. The most elaborate statement of this view was made by the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (Hobbes, Thomas) in Leviathan (1651). A monopoly of power also has been justified on the basis of a presumed knowledge of absolute truth. Neither the sharing of power nor limits on its exercise appear valid to those who believe that they know—and know absolutely—what is right. This argument was advanced by Vladimir Ilich Lenin (Lenin, Vladimir Ilich) to defend the absolute authority of the Communist Party (Communist Party of the Soviet Union) in Russia after the in 1917.
 

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • absolutism — absolutísm s. n. regim politic în care un monarh concentrează în mâinile sale întreaga putere. (< fr. absolutisme) Trimis de tavi, 08.01.2003. Sursa: MDN  ABSOLUTÍSM s.n. Regim politic propriu monarhiei absolute; putere absolută a unui monarh …   Dicționar Român

  • absolutism — absolutism, absolutist state The term itself may be defined as a state form typical of societies in the process of transition from feudalism to capitalism , wherein power is concentrated in the person of a monarch, who has at his or her disposal… …   Dictionary of sociology

  • Absolutism — Ab so*lu tism, n. 1. The state of being absolute; the system or doctrine of the absolute; the principles or practice of absolute or arbitrary government; despotism. [1913 Webster] The element of absolutism and prelacy was controlling. Palfrey.… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • absolutism — (n.) 1753 in theology; 1830 in politics, in which sense it was first used by British reformer and parliamentarian Maj. Gen. Thomas Perronet Thompson (1783 1869). See ABSOLUTE (Cf. absolute) and ISM (Cf. ism) …   Etymology dictionary

  • absolutism — ► NOUN 1) the principle that those in government should have unlimited power. 2) belief in absolute principles in philosophy. DERIVATIVES absolutist noun & adjective …   English terms dictionary

  • absolutism — [ab′sə lo͞o tiz΄əm] n. 1. the doctrine or system of government under which the ruler has unlimited powers; despotism 2. the quality of being absolute 3. Philos. any doctrine involving the existence of some metaphysical or axiological principle… …   English World dictionary

  • Absolutism — The term Absolutism may refer to: * Absolute idealism, an ontologically monistic philosophy attributed to G.W.F. Hegel. It is Hegel s account of how being is ultimately comprehensible as an all inclusive whole. *Absolute monarchy, a form of… …   Wikipedia

  • absolutism — [[t]æ̱bsəlu͟ːtɪzəm[/t]] 1) N UNCOUNT Absolutism is a political system in which one ruler or leader has complete power and authority over a country. ...the triumphal reassertion of royal absolutism. 2) N UNCOUNT (disapproval) You can refer to… …   English dictionary

  • Absolutism — the position that in a particular domain of thought, all statements in that domain are either absolutely true or absolutely false: none is true for some cultures or eras while false for other cultures or eras. These statements are called absolute …   Mini philosophy glossary

  • absolutism — noun /ˈæbsəluːtɪzəm/ a) The state of being absolute; the system or doctrine of the absolute; the principles or practice of absolute or arbitrary government; despotism. , The element of absolutism and prelacy was controlling. Palfrey b) Doctrine… …   Wiktionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.