European Court of Human Rights


European Court of Human Rights
the court of law of the Council of Europe, started in 1950 and based in Strasbourg, France. It decides whether the agreed Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms has not been obeyed.

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      judicial organ established in 1959 that is charged with supervising the enforcement of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950; commonly known as the European Convention on Human Rights), which was drawn up by the Council of Europe (Europe, Council of). The convention obligates signatories to guarantee various civil and political freedoms, including the freedom of expression and religion and the right to a fair trial. It is headquartered in Strasbourg, France.

      Individuals who believe their human rights have been violated and who are unable to remedy their claim through their national legal system may petition the ECHR to hear the case and render a verdict. The court, which also can hear cases brought by states, may award financial compensation, and its decisions often require changes in national law. Consisting of more than 40 judges elected for renewable six-year terms, the ECHR normally works in seven-judge chambers. Judges do not represent their countries, and there is no limit to the number of judges a single country may contribute. The court is also divided into four sections, the judges of which represent a balance of gender and geography and take account for the various legal systems. A Grand Chamber of 17 judges is sometimes used in cases where the seven-judge panel determines that a serious issue of interpretation is involved or that the decision of the panel might contravene existing case law.

      In order to handle the growing number of cases more efficiently, a different court, bearing the same name, was established in 1998. It was merged with the European Commission of Human Rights, which was established in 1954, and enabled to hear individual cases without the prior assent of the individual's national government. The court's decisions are binding on all signatories.

John G. Merrills
 

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Universalium. 2010.

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