gʷher-


gʷher-
To heat, warm.
Derivatives include brand, brandy, forceps, and fornicate.
1. Zero-grade form *gʷhr-.
a. burn1, from Old English beornan, byrnan (intransitive) and bærnan (transitive), to burn;
b. brimstone, from late Old English brynstān, “burning mineral,” sulfur (stān, stone; see stāi-);
c. brindled, from Old Norse brenna, to burn. a-c all from Germanic *brennan (intransitive) and brannjan (transitive), formed from *brenw- with nasal suffix and analogical vocalism.
2.
a. brand, from Old English brand, piece of burning wood, sword;
b. brandy, from Dutch branden, to burn, distill;
c. brandish, from Old French brand, sword;
d. brandade, from Old Provençal brand, sword. a-d all from Germanic *brandaz, a burning, a flaming torch, hence also a sword.
3. Suffixed form *gʷher-m(n)o-. therm, -therm, thermo-, -thermy; hypothermia, lobster thermidor, from Greek thermos, warm, hot, and thermē, heat.
4. O-grade form *gʷhor-. forceps, forcipate, from Latin forceps, pincers, fire tongs (< “that which holds hot things” -ceps, agential suffix, “-taker” see kap-).
5. Suffixed o-grade form *gʷhor-no-.
a. Fornax, furnace, hornito, from Latin furnus, fornus, fornāx, oven;
b. probably Latin fornix, arch, vault (< “vaulted brick oven”): fornicate, fornix.
6. Suffixed zero-grade form *gʷhr̥-to-, heated, likely source of Sanskrit ghṛtam, ghee, clarified butter: ghee.
 
[Pokorny gᵘ̯her- 493, bh(e)reu- 143.]

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Universalium. 2010.

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