Uighur


Uighur
Uighur or Uigur [wē′goor]
n.
Uighur name < ?
1. a member of a Turkic people, living mainly in W China and Uzbekistan, that ruled in Mongolia and Turkestan in the Middle Ages
2. the Turkic language of this people
adj.
of the Uighurs or their language or culture

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or Uygur

A Turkic-speaking people of Central Asia who live largely in northwestern China.

About 8,000,000 Uighurs live in China today, and some 300,000 in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. They are among the oldest Turkic-speaking peoples of Central Asia, first mentioned in Chinese records from the 3rd century AD. In the 8th century they established a kingdom, which was overrun in 840. A Uighur confederacy (745–1209), established around the Tien Shan, was overthrown by the Mongols. This confederacy came to the aid of China's Tang dynasty during the An Lushan Rebellion. The Uighurs of that time professed a Manichaean faith.

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people
Chinese (Pinyin)  Uygur  

      Turkic-speaking people of interior Asia who live for the most part in northwestern China, in the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang; (Sinkiang, Uygur Autonomous Region of) a small number live in the Central Asian republics. There were nearly 9 million Uighurs in China and about 300,000 in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan in the early 21st century.

      The Uighur language is part of the Turkic group of Altaic languages, and the Uighur are among the oldest Turkic-speaking peoples of Central Asia. They are mentioned in Chinese records from the 3rd century AD. They first rose to prominence in the 8th century, when they established a kingdom along the Orhon River in what is now north-central Mongolia. In 840 this state was overrun by the Kyrgyz, however, and the Uighur migrated southwestward to the area around the Tian Shan (mountains). There the Uighur formed another independent kingdom in the Turfan region, but this was overthrown by the expanding Mongols in the 13th century.

      The Uighur are, in the main, a sedentary, village-dwelling people, who live in the network of oases formed in the valleys and lower slopes of the Tian Shan, Pamirs, and related mountain systems. The region is one of the most arid in the world; hence, for centuries they have practiced irrigation to conserve their water supply for agriculture. Their principal food crops are wheat, corn (maize), kaoliang (a form of sorghum), and melons. The chief industrial crop is cotton, which has long been grown in the area. Many Uighur are employed in petroleum extraction, mining, and manufacturing in urban centres.

      The chief Uighur cities are Urumqi (Ürümqi), the capital of Xinjiang, and Kashgar, an ancient centre of trade near the Russian-Chinese border. The Uighur have lacked political unity in recent centuries, except for a brief period during the 19th century when they were in revolt against Beijing. Their social organization is centred on the village. The Uighur of Xinjiang are Sunnite Muslims.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Uighur — or Uigur [wē′goor] n. [Uighur name < ?] 1. a member of a Turkic people, living mainly in W China and Uzbekistan, that ruled in Mongolia and Turkestan in the Middle Ages 2. the Turkic language of this people adj. of the Uighurs or their… …   English World dictionary

  • Uighur — noun 1. a member of a people who speak Uighur and live in Xinjiang and adjacent areas • Syn: ↑Uigur, ↑Uygur • Hypernyms: ↑Turki • Member Holonyms: ↑Xinjiang, ↑Sinkiang, ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • Uighur — also Uigur noun Etymology: Uighur Uighur Date: 1747 1. a member of a Turkic people powerful in Mongolia and eastern Turkestan between the 8th and 12th centuries A.D. who constitute a majority of the population of Chinese Turkestan 2. the Turkic… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Uighur — [ wi:gə] (also Uigur, Uygur) noun 1》 a member of a Turkic people of NW China. 2》 the Turkic language of the Uighurs. Origin the name in Uighur …   English new terms dictionary

  • Uighur — ISO 639 3 Code : uig ISO 639 2/B Code : uig ISO 639 2/T Code : uig ISO 639 1 Code : ug Scope : Individual Language Type : Living …   Names of Languages ISO 639-3

  • uighur — ui·ghur …   English syllables

  • Uighur — Ui•ghur or Uigur or Uyghur [[t]wē′gər[/t]] n. pl. ghurs or gurs, (esp. collectively) ghur or gur. 1) peo a member of a Turkic people of Central Asia, living mainly in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of W China 2) peo the language of the… …   From formal English to slang

  • Uighur — /ˈwigʊə/ (say weegoouh) noun → Uygur. Also, Uigur …   Australian English dictionary

  • Uighur language —       member of the Turkic (Turkic languages) subfamily of the Altaic language family, spoken by Uighurs in the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang of northwestern China and in portions of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. The modern Uighur …   Universalium

  • Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region — noun an autonomous province in far northwestern China on the border with Mongolia and Kazakhstan; the largest province in the People s Republic of China and the homeland of the Uighur people • Syn: ↑Xinjiang, ↑Sinkiang • Members of this Region:… …   Useful english dictionary


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