* * *or BrugesCity (pop., 2000 est.: 116,200), northwestern Belgium.First mentioned in 7th-century records, it was the site of a castle built in the 9th century by the first counts of Flanders against Norman invaders. It joined the Hanseatic League and was a major marketplace in the 13th century. As the centre of the Flemish cloth industry, it was the commercial hub of northern Europe. In the 15th century it was home to Jan van Eyck and other painters of the Flemish school (see Flemish art). It declined as a port and textile centre but later revived with the construction of canals linking it with the North Sea. Shipbuilding, food processing, chemicals, electronics, and tourism are the main industries.
* * *▪ Belgiumcity, Flanders Region, northwestern Belgium, about 10 miles (16 km) south of Zeebrugge, its port on the North Sea. Originally a landing place on the Zwijn estuary, into which the Reie River flowed, it was mentioned in the 7th century as the Municipium Brugense (a name derived from a Roman bridge over the Reie). Brugge's intricate network of canals has led many to describe the city as the Venice of the North. After it was evangelized by St. Eloi, bishop of Noyon-Tournai, the first counts of Flanders built their castle there (9th century) against Norman invaders. By the 13th century the town held a monopoly on English wool, was a leading emporium for the Hanseatic League, and, with the other “members from Flanders” (Ghent and Ypres), virtually governed the entire province. After maintaining its independence despite an attack by France in 1302, it reached its commercial zenith in the 14th century. At that time it was one of the largest and most important cities in northern Europe. As the Zwijn estuary silted up in the 15th century, the city began to decline as a trade centre but remained brilliant and powerful as the court of the dukes of Burgundy (counts of Flanders from 1384) and as the artistic centre of the Flemish school of painting, until the religious and political struggles of the 16th century completed its eclipse.It remained a sleepy medieval town until the construction of the port of Zeebrugge and the cutting of a connecting canal (opened 1907) revived trade and stimulated industry and tourism. It was occupied by the Germans in World Wars I and II; the harbour of Zeebrugge was raided by the British in 1918, and blockships were sunk in the canal to deny the use of the port to German submarines.As a rail and canal junction, Brugge depends largely on tourism, but a relatively new industrial area in the north produces ships, electronic equipment, dies, yeast, and industrial glass. Spinning, weaving, and lace making are traditional.Medieval remains in the city include the old Market Hall (13th–15th century), with a famous 47-bell carillon in the belfry, and the Town Hall (1376–1420). The Chapel of the Holy Blood (14th–16th century) contains the Chapel of St. Basil (1150) and a gold casket that is reputed to hold a few drops of Christ's blood brought from the Holy Land in 1150. Other notable churches include the Cathedral of St. Salvator (12th–16th century); the Church of Notre Dame, containing the tombs of Mary of Burgundy and her father, Charles the Bold; and the Church of Jerusalem (1428), a replica of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Notable among numerous museums with collections of Flemish art and history are the Memling Museum in the 12th-century Hospital of St. John, the Groeninge Museum, and the 15th-century Gruuthuse mansion. The béguinage (a retreat for secular nuns; 1245) is one of the finest in Belgium. The medieval atmosphere of Brugge lends itself to pageantry, a notable example of which is the Procession of Holy Blood (on Ascension Day). Pop. (2007 est.) mun., 116,982.
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См. также в других словарях:
Brugge — Brügge … Deutsch Wikipedia
Brügge — Brügge … Deutsch Wikipedia
Brügge — (franz. Bruges), Hauptstadt der belg. Provinz Westflandern, 13 km von der Nordseeküste bei Blankenberghe entfernt, an der Vereinigung der Kanäle von Gent, Ostende, Sluis, Nieuport, Furnes und Ypern, Knotenpunkt an der Eisenbahn Brüssel Ostende,… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Brügge  — Brügge (franz. Bruges), 1) Bezirk in der belgischen Provinz WFlandern; 251/5 QM., 122,500 Ew.; 2) Canton darin; 3) Hauptstadt hier u. der Provinz; Festung, an einem Kanal (von Gent nach Ostende), Sitz der obersten Provinzialbehörden u. eines… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Brügge  — Brügge, 1) Hermann v. B., 1536–49 Fürstenmeister des Schwertordens in Liefland. 2) Jan van B., so v.w. Jan van Eyk. 3) Rogier van B., so v.w. Rogier van der Weyden … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Brügge — (frz. Bruges), Hauptstadt der belg. Prov. Westflandern, 15 km von der Nordsee, (1904) 53.728 E., Kathedrale, St. Johannspital (berühmte Gemälde Memlings), Kunstakademie; Spitzen , Leinenindustrie. Im 13. Jahrh. Stapelplatz der Londoner Hansa, im… … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Brügge — Brügge, belgische Stadt, berühmt durch seine Spitzen , Leinwand , Wolle , Baumwolle und Lederwaarenfabriken, nahe an der Nordsee mit schiffbaren Kanälen, 42,000 Einwohnern, schöner Domkirche, vielen Palästen und ausgezeichneten öffentlichen… … Damen Conversations Lexikon
Brügge — Brügge, frz. Bruges, Hauptstadt der belg. Provinz Westflandern, 2 M. vom Meere, an der Eisenbahn von Brüssel nach Ostende und mehreren, auch für größere Seeschiffe fahrbaren Kanälen, mit 49600 E., einer Citadelle. B. ist Sitz eines Bischofs,… … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
Brugge — [brüzhbroog′ə] city in NW Belgium: pop. 116,000: Fr. name Bruges [brüzh] … English World dictionary
Brugge — Bruges 51°12′31″N 3°13′27″E / 51.20861, 3.22417 … Wikipédia en Français