breeder reactor


breeder reactor
n.
a nuclear reactor generating nuclear energy and creating additional fuel by producing more fissile material than it consumes

* * *

      nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable material than it consumes to generate energy. This special type of reactor is designed to extend the nuclear fuel supply for electric power generation. Whereas a conventional nuclear reactor (q.v.) can use only the readily fissionable but scarce isotope uranium-235 for fuel, a breeder reactor employs either uranium-238 or thorium, of which sizable quantities are available. Uranium-238, for example, accounts for more than 99 percent of all naturally occurring uranium. In breeders, approximately 70 percent of this isotope can be utilized for power production. Conventional reactors, in contrast, can extract less than one percent of its energy.

      The first experimental breeder reactor, designated EBR-1, was developed in 1951 by U.S. scientists at the National Reactor Testing Station (now called Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), near Idaho Falls, Ida. France, Great Britain, Japan, and the Soviet Union subsequently built experimental breeders. As yet, however, no nation has developed a breeder suitable for high-capacity commercial use.

      The most promising type of breeder, the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor, converts uranium-238 into the fissionable isotope plutonium-239 (plutonium) by means of artificial radioactive decay. The plutonium-239 is then bombarded with high-speed neutrons. When a plutonium nucleus absorbs one such free neutron, it splits into two fission fragments. This fissioning releases heat as well as neutrons, which in turn split other plutonium nuclei, freeing still more neutrons. As this process is repeated again and again, it becomes a self-sustaining chain reaction, yielding a steady source of energy, chiefly in the form of heat, which is transported from the reactor core by a liquid sodium coolant to a system of heat exchangers. This system utilizes the heat to produce steam for a turbine that drives an electric generator.

      Another type of experimental breeder, the thermal breeder reactor, employs thorium-232 (thorium) as its basic fuel, or fertile material. It converts this isotope into fissionable uranium-233, which is capable of creating a chain reaction. In the thermal breeder, whose technology is much simpler than that of the liquid-metal fast breeder, ordinary water is employed as a coolant to remove the heat produced by the continuous series of fission reactions.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • breeder reactor — n. a nuclear reactor generating nuclear energy and creating additional fuel by producing more fissile material than it consumes …   English World dictionary

  • Breeder reactor — См. Реактор размножитель Термины атомной энергетики. Концерн Росэнергоатом, 2010 …   Термины атомной энергетики

  • Breeder reactor — Assembly of the core of Experimental Breeder Reactor I in Idaho, 1951 A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor that generates more fissile material in fuel than it consumes.[1] These reactors are considered appealing due to their superior fuel… …   Wikipedia

  • breeder reactor — dauginimo reaktorius statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. breeder; breeder reactor vok. Brüter, m; Brutreaktor, m rus. бридерный реактор, m; реактор размножитель, m pranc. breeder, m; réacteur surconvertisseur, m; réacteur surrégénérateur …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

  • breeder reactor — dauginimo reaktorius statusas T sritis Energetika apibrėžtis Branduolinis reaktorius, kuriame branduolinis kuras virsta atgamintuoju branduoliniu kuru. Reaktoriuje branduolių (pvz., plutonio Pu²³⁹) dalijimosi metu laisvieji neutronai sąveikauja… …   Aiškinamasis šiluminės ir branduolinės technikos terminų žodynas

  • breeder reactor — noun a nuclear reactor that produces more fissile material than it burns • Hypernyms: ↑nuclear reactor, ↑reactor • Part Meronyms: ↑blanket …   Useful english dictionary

  • breeder reactor — noun see breeder …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Breeder reactor —   A reactor that both produces and consumes fissionable fuel, especially one that creates more fuel than it consumes. The new fissionable material is created by a process known as breeding, in which neutrons from fission are captured in fertile… …   Energy terms

  • Fast breeder reactor — The fast breeder or fast breeder reactor (FBR) is a fast neutron reactor designed to breed fuel by producing more fissile material than it consumes. The FBR is one possible type of breeder reactor. The reactors are used in nuclear power plants to …   Wikipedia

  • Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project — Architect s conception of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor The Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBRP) Project was a joint effort of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (and its successor agencies, the U.S. Energy Research and Development… …   Wikipedia