Vitruvius


Vitruvius
Vitruvius [vi tro͞o′vē əs]
( Marcus Vitruvius Pollio) fl. 1st cent. B.C.; Rom. architect & engineer

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Vi·tru·vi·us (vĭ-tro͞oʹvē-əs), In full Marcus Vitruvius Pollio.fl. first century B.C.
Roman architect and writer. His De Architectura is the only surviving text on ancient architectural theory.

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in full Marcus Vitruvius Pollio

flourished 1st century BC

Roman architect, engineer, and author of the celebrated treatise De architectura, a handbook for Roman architects.

Little is known of his life except what can be gathered from his writings. The treatise is divided into 10 books covering almost every aspect of architecture and city planning. His wish was to preserve the Classical Greek tradition in the design of temples and public buildings, and his prefaces contain many pessimistic remarks about the architecture of the time. His work was the chief authority on ancient Classical architecture throughout the antique revival of the Renaissance, the Classical phase of the Baroque, and the Neoclassical period.

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▪ Roman architect
in full  Marcus Vitruvius Pollio  
flourished 1st century BC

      Roman architect, engineer, and author of the celebrated treatise De architectura (On Architecture), a handbook for Roman architects.

      Little is known of Vitruvius' life, except what can be gathered from his writings, which are somewhat obscure on the subject. Although he nowhere identifies the emperor to whom his work is dedicated, it is likely that the first Augustus is meant and that the treatise was conceived after 27 BC. Since Vitruvius describes himself as an old man, it may be inferred that he was also active during the time of Julius Caesar. Vitruvius himself tells of a basilica he built at Fanum (now Fano).

      De architectura was based on his own experience, as well as on theoretical works by famous Greek architects such as Hermogenes. The treatise covers almost every aspect of architecture, but it is limited, since it is based primarily on Greek models, from which Roman architecture was soon decisively to depart in order to serve the new needs of proclaiming a world empire. De architectura is divided into 10 books dealing with city planning and architecture in general; building materials; temple construction and the use of the Greek orders; public buildings (theatres, baths); private buildings; floors and stucco decoration; hydraulics; clocks, mensuration, and astronomy; and civil and military engines. Vitruvius' outlook is essentially Hellenistic. His wish was to preserve the classical tradition in the design of temples and public buildings, and his prefaces to the separate books of his treatise contain many pessimistic remarks about the contemporary architecture. Most of what Pliny says in his Natural History about Roman construction methods and wall painting was taken from Vitruvius, though unacknowledged. Vitruvius' expressed desire that his name be honoured by posterity was realized. Throughout the antique revival of the Renaissance, the classical phase of the Baroque, and in the Neoclassical period, his work was the chief authority on ancient classical architecture.

      The text of De architectura with an English translation is published in the Loeb Classical Library in two volumes.

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Universalium. 2010.

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