Napata


Napata
Nap·a·ta (năpʹə-tə)
An ancient city of Nubia near the Fourth Cataract of the Nile River in modern-day Sudan. It flourished during the eighth century B.C.

* * *

Town in ancient Egypt.

Located below the fourth cataract of the Nile River in the northern part of what is now The Sudan, it was the capital (с 750–590 BC) of the Nubian kingdom of Kush and was part of the homeland of the Karmah culture. From the early 18th dynasty it came under Egyptian influence. Ruins in the area include pyramids and temples.

* * *

▪ ancient city, The Sudan
      the capital in about 750–590 BC of the ancient kingdom of Cush (Kush), situated downstream from the Fourth Cataract of the Nile, near Kuraymah in the northern part of what is now The Sudan.

      An area rather than a single town, Napata extended to the east and south of Kuraymah, from Nuri to Kurru. It was part of the homeland of the Karmah culture, and from the early 18th dynasty it came under Egyptian influence. Napata's main feature, the hill of Barkol, was regarded from the Egyptian New Kingdom (1521–1075 BC) as a holy mountain, the seat of the god Amon; under it lie the ruins of several temples. A stela of Thutmose III (reigned 1479–1425), on which a fort is mentioned, has been found there, and Amenhotep II (reigned c. 1426–1400) sent an Asian prisoner to be hanged on its walls.

      By the beginning of the 1st millennium, Egypt was in decline, with Lower Egypt increasingly prey to Libyan immigrants. It has been speculated that a body of the priests of Amon at Thebes voluntarily exiled themselves to Napata, where they may have Egyptianized the native princes of Cush, inspiring them—from about 750—to conquer a degenerate Egypt. The descendants of the first known Cushite prince, Alara (c. 790 BC), established themselves as the 25th dynasty of Egypt; they are remembered for being largely responsible for restoring to Egypt its ancient customs and beliefs. During this period Napata became a capital of a significant part of the ancient world, and Cushite kings intrigued with Tyre, Sidon, Israel, and Judah in a vain attempt to repel the Assyrians.

      The Egyptian custom of royal burial under pyramids was introduced into Cush, as may be seen at Kurru and at Nuri, where the largest pyramid, that of the king Taharqa (reigned 690–664 BC), is situated. Taharqa, who also built several Egyptian-style temples at Napata and elsewhere, was defeated by the Assyrians and expelled from Egypt in 671 BC.

      Though Taharqa's successor Tanutamon (reigned 664–656 BC) briefly reconquered Memphis (c. 664 BC), his plans were thwarted by the 26th (Saite) dynasty of Egypt, which sent an expedition of Greek and Carian mercenaries to sack Napata in 592 BC. The capital of Cush was thereafter transferred to Meroe, some 150 miles (240 km) southeast on the opposite bank of the Nile. Napata remained the religious capital of Cush, however, and royal burials continued to take place at Nuri until 315 BC. Two subsequent and separate groups of royal burials at Barkol have given rise to the hypothesis that Napata may twice have made itself independent of Meroe.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Napata — Ville d Égypte antique Localisation Région Nubie Coordonnées …   Wikipédia en Français

  • NAPATA — Sous le Nouvel Empire, la domination égyptienne est à son apogée: le pays de Koush (la Nubie et la partie nord de l’actuel Soudan) est annexé. Thoutmosis III (NAPATA 1490 env. env. NAPATA 1436) recule la frontière loin vers le sud, jusqu’aux… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Napata — Napata in Hieroglyphen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Napata — Napata,   Ruinenstätte in Obernubien beim 4. Nilkatarakt, im nördlichen Sudan, seit Thutmosis III. (1490 1436 v. Chr.) südlicher Grenzort des ägyptischen Machtbereichs in Nubien, seit 920 v. Chr. Residenz nubischer Könige (Reich Kusch). König… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Napăta — Napăta, Hauptstadt in Äthiopien, Residenz der nubischen Königin Kandake; die Römer unter Petronius nahmen es ein; seitdem verfiel es; angeblich Ruinen von N. am Berge Barkal …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Napata — Napata, alte Stadt am obern Nil, oberhalb des dritten Katarakts, nach der Eroberung Nubiens (s. Kusch) durch die Pharaonen der 18. Dynastie (um 1500 v. Chr.) die Südgrenze des ägyptischen Reiches bildend. Bei der Gründung eines eignen… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Napata — Napăta, Hauptstadt Altäthiopiens, am Fuße des Barkal; Ruinen vorhanden …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • NAPATA — urbs Aethiopiae sub Aegypto, Candacis reginae regia; inter Syenen, et Meroenurbem insulae Meroes. Napatae Straboni et Stephano. Populi Napataei …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Napata — Coordinates: 18°32′N 31°50′E / 18.53°N 31.84°E / 18.53; 31.84 …   Wikipedia

  • Napata — Gebel Barkal y los sitios de la región de Napata1 Patrimonio de la Humanidad Unesco Mapa de Nubia, territorio a lo largo del Nilo, al sur de Asuán …   Wikipedia Español


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.