South American Indian Language Groups, Table


South American Indian Language Groups, Table

Table

Only languages attested linguistically are included. Extinct languages
are shown in italics. A number in parentheses after the name of a group
indicates a possible relationship with the group identified by that number.
Languages are separated by commas, names in parentheses are of dialects,
and names in brackets are alternative spellings. Except for Arawakan,
Macro-Ge, and Tupian, most groupings are geographical, but those identified
by capital letters represent in general markedly differentiated groups.
Spelling follows the most common usage for each language or group, thus
it is not consistent. Equivalent spellings: b=v; g=j=y; gu=hu=u=w; i=y;
h=(nothing); h=j; k=c (before a, o, u); k=qu (before i, e); sh=x=ch; s=z;
ñ=nh=ny; x=j. Names are arranged alphabetically within each subdivision.

language location

1. ALACALUFAN (47): Aksanas or Kaueskar, Alacaluf, Chile
Caucau or Caucawe
2. ANDOQUE (9) Colombia
3. ARAUCANIAN or MAPUCHE (32, 37) Chile, Argentina
4. ARAWAKAN (43, 44)
A. Amuesha Peru
B. Apolista or Lapachu Bolivia
C. Arauan: Araua, Curina, Madihá, Brazil
Paumarí, Yamadí
D. Chamicuro Peru
E. Maipurean
1. Achagua, Amarizana, Capite, Minanei, Cauyarí, Colombia
Guarú, Guayupé, Maipure, Piapoco, Resígaro,
Tariana, Warakena, Yucuna,
Anauya, Baré, Curipaco, Guinau, Mandawaca, Venezuela
Paraujano [Parauhano],
Araikú, Aruan, Cariay, Brazil
Carútana, Catapolítani, Cawishana, Hohodene,
Manao, Mapanai, Marawá, Mariate, Maulieni,
Moriwene, Pasé, Siusí, Wainumá, Wiriná,
Yabaana, Yumana,
Arawak or Lokono, Guyana, Fr. Guiana
Goajiro, Colombia, Venezuela
Adzaneni, Ipeca, Brazil, Colombia
Island Carib Dominica
2. Atorai, Mapidian, Guyana
Wapishana Guyana, Brazil
3. Baníva, Yavitero Venezuela
4. Bauré, Mojo or Ignaciano, Muchojeone, Bolivia
Pauna, Paicone
5. Campa, Machiguenga, Piro, Peru
Canamari, Chontaquiro [Chontakiro], Cuniba, Brazil
Cushineri, Ipuriná,
Inapari Bolivia
6. Caripuna, Marawan Brazil
7. Chané, Argentina
Guaná, Paraguay, Brazil
Quiniquiano, Tereno Brazil
8. Paressí, Brazil
Sarave Bolivia
F. Taino Antilles
G. Morique [Morike] or Mayoruna Peru
5. ATACAMA or CUNZA or LINCAN ANTAI Argentina, Chile
6. AUAKE or ARUTANI Brazil, Venezuela
7. AUISHIRI [AWISHIRA] Peru
8. BAENAN Brazil
9. BORA-HUITOTOAN (2)
A. Boran: Bora or Miraña, Emejeite, Muinane Colombia
B. Huitotoan [Witotoan]: Andoquero, Colombia
Huitoto [Witoto],
Coeruna, Brazil
Ocaina, Orejone, Nonuya or Achote [Achiote] Peru
10. CANICHANA Bolivia
11. CAPIXANA or CANOE Brazil
12. CARIBAN (70)
A. 1. Acawai, Waica, Venezuela
Taulipang or Ipuricoto or Pemon Brazil, Venezuela
(Arecuna, Camaracoto, Ingarico)
2. Apalai, Aracajú, Upurui, Brazil
Oyana, Suriname
Rucuyen Fr. Guiana
3. Apiacá or Apingi, Arara, Brazil
Parirí
4. Atroahi (Yauaperi), Quirixana, Brazil
Waimiri [Waimiry]
5. Bakairi [Bacairi], Nahukua Brazil
(Nahucua), Yaruma
6. Bonari, Hishkariana, Parucoto, Brazil
Waiboi, Waiwai
7. Cachuene or Caxuiana, Brazil
Mutuan, Pauxí, Saluma, Wayewé,
Chiquena [Chikene] or Shikiana Brazil, Guyana
8. Carare, Opone Colombia
9. Caribe or Calina or Galibi, Antilles, Guianas
Carif Belize, Honduras
10. Carijona (Guaque [Guake], Umaua) Colombia
11. Colima, Muzo, Pijiao Colombia
12. Cumanagoto (Chayma, Tamanaco), Tivericoto Venezuela
13. Keseruna, Macushí, Paraviyana, Brazil
Purukoto, Zapará
14. Mariquitare or Decuana, Brazil, Venezuela
Yecuana or Mayongong (Cunuaná, Ihuruana) Venezuela
15. Mapoyo or Nepoyo, Yauarana Venezuela
16. Motilón Colombia, Venezuela
17. Palmela [Palmella] Brazil
18. Panare Venezuela
19. Patagón Peru
20. Pawishana Brazil
21. Pianocoto, Brazil
Tliometesen, Suriname
Trio (Ocomayana, Urucuyena [Urucuena], Wama) Suriname, Brazil
22. Pimenteira Brazil
23. Yao Fr. Guiana, Trinidad
B. Chocó: Chamí, Sambú [Sambo], Colombia
Waunana
13. CARIRI or KIRIRI Brazil
14. CATACAO: Catacao, Colan Peru
15. CATEMBRI or MIRANDELA Brazil
16. CATUQUINA [CATUKINA]: Bendiapa (Canamari, Parawa), Brazil
Catuquina [Catukina] or Wiridyapa, Catauxi,
Tucundiapa [Tucundyapa]
17. CAYUVAVA (70) Bolivia
18. CHAPACURA: Chapacura or Huachi, Itene or Moré, Bolivia
Itoreauhip, Nape, Pacahanovo, Quitemo,
Cumaná (Abitana), Torá, Urupá Brazil
(Yarú [Jarú]), Wañám [Wanyam]
19. CHIQUITO or TARAPECOSI (42) Bolivia
20. CHOLONAN: Cholona or Seeptsá, Peru
Híbito
21. COFÁN Colombia, Ecuador
22. CULLI or ILINGA Peru
23. ERIKBAKTSA or CANOEIRO Brazil
24. GAMELA Brazil
25. GORGOTOQUI Brazil
26. GUAHIBOAN (4): Chiricoa, Guahibo, Venezuela, Colombia
Churuya, Guayabero Venezuela
27. GUAYCURÚ-CHARRUAN
A. Charruan: Chaná, Uruguay
Charrúa (Guenoa or Minuan) Uruguay, Argentina, Brazil
B. Guaycuruan: Abipón or Callaga, Argentina, Paraguay
Caduveo or Mbayá or Guaycurú, Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay
Guachí, Brazil
Mocoví, Argentina
Payaguá or Lengua, Paraguay
Toba-Pilagá Argentina, Bolivia
28. GUAMO Venezuela
29. GUATÓ Bolivia, Brazil
30. GUENNAKEN or GUNUNA-KUNE or PUELCHE Argentina
31. HUARIAN: Huari or Corumbiara, Masaca or Aicana Brazil
32. HUARPEAN (37): Allentiac, Millcayac Argentina
33. IRANXE (4) Brazil
34. JIRAJARAN: Ayomán, Gayón, Jirajara Venezuela
35. KALIANA or SAPE Venezuela
36. KOAIA Brazil
37. JEBERO-JIVAROAN
A. Jeberoan or Cahuapanan: Cahuapana or Chuncho Peru
[Concho],Chayavita, Jebero [Chébero],
Miquirá, Yamorai
B. Jívaroan: Aguaruna, Peru
Jívaro or Shuara (Achual, Huambisa [Wambisa]) Ecuador
38. KUKURA Brazil
39. LECO Bolivia
40. LULEAN (48)
A. Lule or Tonocoté
B. Vilela or Chunupí (Atalalá, Argentina
Ocolé, Uacambabelé)
41. MACRO-CHIBCHAN
A. Chibchan
1. Abiseta or Orosi or Tucurrique [Tucurrike], Costa Rica
Boruca or Turucaca, Bribrí or
Lari, Cabecar, Chiripó, Estrella, Terraba or
Brurán, Tirub or Rayado
2. Andaquí Colombia
3. Atanque or Busintana, Bintucua or Ijca, Colombia
Cágaba or Koghi, Guamaca or Arsario,
Tairona or Teyuna
4. Barira or Cunaguasaya, Colombia
Motilón or Dobocubí,
Mape Venezuela
5. Betoi Colombia
6. Cara or Imbaya, Cayapa or Nigua, Ecuador
Colorado or Campaz or Colima or Satxila,
Cuaiquier, Muellama, Telembi Colombia
7. Catio, Nutabé Colombia
8. Chibcha or Muisca, Tunebo Colombia
9. Chimila, Malibú Colombia
10. Changuena, Chumula (Gualaca) Panama
11. Coconuco, Guambiana or Silviano, Colombia
Moguex, Totoró
12. Corobisi, Guatuso, Guetar, Suerre or Camachi Costa Rica
13. Cuna, Panama
Cueva Colombia
14. Guaymí, Move (Penonemeño) Panama
15. Panzaleo or Quito, Ecuador
Paez Colombia
16. Rama Nicaragua
17. Sebondoy or Kamsá or Coche or Mocoa, Colombia
Quillasinga
B. 1. Esmeralda or Atacame Ecuador
2. Yaruro Venezuela
C. Itonama Bolivia
D. Paya Honduras
E. Sumo-Miskito-Matagalpa
1. Matagalpa (Cacaopera), Ecuador, Suriname
Jinotega or Chingo Nicaragua
2. Miskito [Mosquito], Honduras, Nicaragua
Ulua, Sumo Nicaragua
F. Waican or Yanoaman: Karimé [Carimé], Brazil
Pakidai-Surara, Paucosa,
Sanemá or Samatari (Pubmatari), Venezuela
Shamatari, Shirianá or Casapare, Brazil, Venezuela
Waica [Waika]
G. Warao [Warrau] or Guarauno Venezuela
42. MACRO-GE (70)
A. Bororoan
1. Bororo Brazil
2. Otuké Bolivia
B. Botocudo or Aymoré
C. Fulnió Brazil
D. Ge
1. Akroá, Xakriaba [Shacriaba], Brazil
Xavante [Shavante], Xerente [Sherenté]
2. Apinayé-Kayapó, Eastern Brazil
Timbira, Suyá
3. Caingang [Kaingang], Xokleng [Shocleng] Brazil
4. Southern Kayapó Brazil
E. Jeikó [Jeico] Brazil
F. Kamakán Brazil
G. Karajá Brazil
H. Kapoxo (Kumanaxo), Malalí, Brazil
Maxakalí, Monoxo, Patashó
I. Ofayé or Opayé-Shavante Brazil
J. Purí-Coroado: Coroado, Coropó, Purí
43. MACRO-MAYAN (4): Uru-Chipaya (Uru, Chipaya) Bolivia
44. MACRO-PANO-TACANAN (4)
A. Chon: Haush or Manekenken, Ona or Argentina
Shelknam, Tehuelche, Teushen or Tehuesh
B. Mosetene: Chimane, Mosetene [Moseten] Bolivia
C. Pano-Tacanan
1. Panoan: Amahuaca [Amawaca], Brazil, Peru
Cashinahua [Cashinawa],
Capanahua [Capanawa], Cashibo, Peru
Conibo-Shipibo (Chama, Setebo, Sensi),
Marinahua [Marinawa], Marobo, Nocamán,
Pano or Pánobo,
Culino (Curina), Jaminahua, Mayoruna or Brazil
Maruba, Nastanahua, Nixinahua, Parannahua,
Poyanahua, Remo, Shaminahua, Tushinahua
[Tushinawa], Waninahua or Catoquino,
Yahuanahua (Yawanawa), Yumanahua,
Arazaire [Arasaire], Atsahuaca [Atsawaca] or Peru
Chaspa, Yamiaca or Haauñeiri,
Caripuna, Brazil
Chácobo, Pacahuara [Pacawara] Bolivia
2. Tacanan: Arasa, Cavineña, Chama or Bolivia
Esseejja, Guarizo, Huarayo (Tianinagua),
Mabenaro, Maropa or Reyesano, Sapiboca
[Sapiboka], Tacana (Araona, Toromona)
D. Yuracare Bolivia
45. MAKÚ Venezuela, Brazil
46. MASCOY [MASCOI] or LENGUA: Paraguay
Angaité (Sanapá), Kashiká or
Guaná, Lengua or Enslet or Cocoloth (Mascoy)
47. MATACO-MACCÁ [MACÁ]
1. Ashluslay or Chulupí Paraguay
Chorotí or Solote or Yofuaha Paraguay, Argentina
Choropí (Suhin, Sotirai), Mataco or Argentina
Mataguayo (Guisnay, Nocten, Vejoz)
2. Enimagá or Cochaboth Paraguay
3. Maccá [Macá] or Towothli Paraguay
48. MOVIMA (27) Bolivia
49. MUNICHI [MUNICHE] Peru
50. MURA-MATANAWÍ
A. Bohurá, Mura, Pirahá Brazil
B. Matanawí Brazil
51. MURATO or CANDOSHI or SHAPRA Peru
52. NAMBIKWARA [NAMBICUARA]: Brazil
Central Nambikwara, Eastern Nambikwara
53. OMURANO or MAYNA Peru
54. OTOMACO-TAPARITA: Otomaco, Taparita Venezuela
55. PANKARURÚ [PANCARARÚ] Brazil
56. PUINAVE-MAKU: Makú, Marahan, Querari, Brazil
Puinave Colombia
57. PUQUINA: Pohena or Callahuaya, Puquina Bolivia
58. QUECHUMARAN
A. Aymaran: Aymara, Cauqui or Jaqaru Bolivia, Peru
B. Quechuan: Almaguero, Inga, Colombia
Ancash, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Chasutino, Peru
Huánuco, Junín, Lamano, Lima, Mayna,
Pasco, Ucayali,
Catamarca-La Rioja, Santiago del Estero, Argentina
Cuzco-Bolivian, Peru, Bolivia
Ecuadorian, Quijos, Tena, Ecuador
Tuichi Bolivia
59. SABELAN: Sabela or Auca or Huarani, Tiwituey Peru
60. SÁLIVA-PIAROAN: Maco (Macu), Piaroa, Venezuela
Sáliva Colombia
61. SEC or SECHURA or TALLÁN or Peru
ATALÁN
62. SIMACU or ITUCALE or ARUCUAYA or URARIÑA Peru
63. TARARIU (TARAIRIU) or OCHUKUYANA Brazil
[OCHUKAYANA]
64. TARUMA Brazil
65. TIKUNA [TICUNA] or TUKUNA [TUCUNA] Brazil, Colombia
66. TIMOTE Venezuela
67. TINIGUAN: Pamigua, Tinigua Colombia
68. TRUMAI Brazil
69. TUCANOAN
A. Western: Amaguaje, Coto, Piojé, Peru
Coreguaje [Correguaje], Dätuana, Colombia
Icaguaje, Macaguaje, Macuna, Sära,
(Ömöa, Buhagana), Siona [Sioni], Tama,
Tanimuca, Uantia, Yahuna, Yupua,
Coretu, Brazil
Secoya Ecuador
B. Eastern: Bara, Erulia (Paneroa, Tsölöa), Colombia
Karapana [Carapaná], (Möchda), Pamöá,
Siana or Chiranga, Tatapuyo, Waiana,
Yarutí or Patsoca,
Desana, Tuyuka (Tuyuca), Wanana (Waikina), Colombia, Brazil
Kubeo [Cubeo], Tucano Brazil
70. TUPIAN (12)
A. 1. (Tupí-Guaraní): Apiaká Brazil
[Apiacá], Awetí, Canoeiro, Kamayurá
[Camayura], Kawaíb [Cawahíb] (Pawate,
Parintintin, Wirafed), Kayabí (Cayabí),
Shetà, Takuñapé [Tacunyapé],
Tapirapé, Tenetéhara (Anambé,
Guayayara [Guajajára], Manajé, Tembé,
Turiwara, Urubú), Tupí-Guaraní
(Tupí-nambá), Neengatú,
Oyampí-Emerillon, Brazil, Fr. Guiana
Pauserna, Bolivia, Brazil
Guaraní, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay
Kaiwá, Brazil, Paraguay
Chiriguano, Guarayú, Bolivia
Tapieté, Chané Paraguay
2. Cocama, Peru
Omagua Brazil, Peru
3. Guayakí Paraguay
4. Mawé Brazil
5. Sirionó Bolivia
B. Arara, Ramarama (Itogapid), Urukú, Urumí Brazil
C. Arikem, Kabishiana, Karitiana Brazil
D. Arué, Digüt, Mondé Brazil
E. Guarategaya (Amniapé, Kanoe, Mekens), Brazil
Kepkiriwat, Makurap, Tuparí, Wayoró
(Apichum)
F. Kuruaya [Curuaya], Mundurukú Brazil
G. Manitsawá, Shipaya, Yuruna Brazil
H. Puruborá Brazil
71. TUSHÁ Brazil
72. TUYONEIRI or ARASAIRI or HUACHIPAIRI Peru
73. UMAN or HUAMOI Brazil
74. XUKURÚ or ICHIKILE Brazil
75. YABUTÍ: Aricapú, Mashubi, Brazil
Yabutí or Quipiu
76. YAGUA: Masamae, Peba or Nijamo, Yagua or Mishara, Peru
Yameo or Camuchivo
77. YÁMANA or YAGHAN (41) Chile
78. YUNCA or CHIMÚ or MUCHIC or Ecuador
CHINCHA: Puruhá-Cañari,
Yunca Peru
79. YURÍ Brazil, Colombia
80. YURIMANGUI Colombia
81. ZAMUCO: Chamacoco (Ebidoso, Tumrahá), Paraguay
Zamuco (Ayoré, Moro)
82. ZÁPARO: Arabela, Iquito (Cahuarano), Peru
Shimigae [Semigae], Andoa, Záparo

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

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