Space stations, from 1971


Space stations, from 1971

Table
Space stations, from 1971
station,
or major module for modular station country of origin, or country of launch for
ISS* modules date launched date reentered occupancy,
total days
(and number
of major expeditions) comments
Salyut 1 U.S.S.R. April 19, 1971 Oct. 11, 1971 23 (1) first space station, equipped for scientific studies; abandoned after its first crew died returning to Earth
Salyut 2 U.S.S.R. April 3, 1973 May 28, 1973 0 military reconnaissance platform; suffered explosion after achieving orbit and was never occupied
Cosmos 557 U.S.S.R. May 11, 1973 May 22, 1973 0 scientific station; crippled after achieving orbit and was never occupied
Skylab U.S. May 14, 1973 July 11, 1979 171 (3) first U.S. space station; successfully supported solar studies and biomedical experiments on the effects of weightlessness
Salyut 3 U.S.S.R. June 25, 1974 Jan. 24, 1975 16 (1) military reconnaissance platform
Salyut 4 U.S.S.R. Dec. 26, 1974 Feb. 3, 1977 93 (2) scientific station; operated until its systems were exhausted
Salyut 5 U.S.S.R. June 22, 1976 Aug. 8, 1977 67 (2) military reconnaissance platform
Salyut 6 U.S.S.R. Sept. 29, 1977 July 29, 1982 684 (6) first second-generation Salyut, operated as highly successful scientific station; resident crews hosted a series of international visitors
Salyut 7 U.S.S.R. April 19, 1982 Feb. 2, 1991 815 (5) problem-plagued follow-on to Salyut 6 that had to be repeatedly rescued
Mir (modular) U.S.S.R./
Russia — March 23, 2001 occupied March 14, 1986, to June 15, 2000 (continuously from Sept. 7, 1989, to Aug. 28, 1999) first space station assembled in orbit using individually launched, specialized modules; successfully applied lessons learned from Salyut program
   Mir base block — Feb. 20, 1986 — — habitat module
   Kvant 1 — March 31, 1987 — — astrophysics observatory with X-ray telescopes
   Kvant 2 — Nov. 26, 1989 — — supplementary life-support systems and large air lock
   Kristall — May 31, 1990 — — microgravity materials-processing laboratory
   Spektr — May 20, 1995 — — module with apparatus for NASA research
   Priroda — April 23, 1996 — — module with NASA apparatus and Earth-sciences sensors
International Space Station (modular) international consortium, primarily U.S. and Russia — — permanently occupied since Nov. 2, 2000 modular, expandable station intended to serve world’s space agencies for first quarter of 21st century
Zarya Russia Nov. 20, 1998 — — U.S.-funded, Russian-built module supplying initial solar power and attitude-control system
Unity U.S. Dec. 4, 1998 — — U.S.-built connecting node
Zvezda Russia July 2, 2000 — — Russian-built habitat module and control centre
Destiny U.S. Feb. 7, 2001 — — U.S.-built NASA microgravity laboratory
Quest U.S. July 12, 2001 — — U.S.-built air lock allowing station-based space walks for U.S. and Russian astronauts
Pirs Russia Sept. 14, 2001 — — Russian-built docking compartment providing Soyuz docking port and additional air lock for Russian space walks
*International Space Station.
See as table:

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

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