Nobel Prize winners by name


Nobel Prize winners by name

Table
Nobel Prize winners by name
A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   Y   Z
A
name year category country* achievement literary area
Abrikosov, Alexey A. 2003 physics U.S. discoveries regarding superconductivity and superfluidity at very low temperatures
Addams, Jane 1931 peace U.S.
Adrian (of Cambridge), Edgar Douglas Adrian, 1st Baron (Adrian, Edgar Douglas Adrian, 1st Baron) 1932 physiology/
medicine U.K. discoveries regarding function of neurons
Agnon, S.Y. 1966 literature Israel novelist
Agre, Peter 2003 chemistry U.S. discoveries regarding water channels in cell membranes
Ahtisaari, Martti 2008 peace Finland
Alder, Kurt 1950 chemistry West Germany discovery and development of diene synthesis
Aleixandre, Vicente 1977 literature Spain poet
Alferov, Zhores I. (Alferov, Zhores) 2000 physics Russia development of fast semiconductors for use in microelectronics
Alfvén, Hannes 1970 physics Sweden work in magnetohydrodynamics and in antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism
Allais, Maurice 1988 economics France contributions to the theory of markets and efficient use of resources
Altman, Sidney 1989 chemistry U.S. discovery of certain basic properties of RNA
Alvarez, Luis W. 1968 physics U.S. work with elementary particles, discovery of resonance states
Amnesty International 1977 peace (founded 1961)
Anderson, Carl David 1936 physics U.S. discovery of the positron
Anderson, Philip W. 1977 physics U.S. contributions to understanding the behaviour of electrons in magnetic, noncrystalline solids
Andric, Ivo (Andrić, Ivo) 1961 literature Yugoslavia novelist
Anfinsen, Christian B. 1972 chemistry U.S. fundamental contributions to enzyme chemistry
Angell, Sir Norman 1933 peace U.K.
Appleton, Sir Edward Victor 1947 physics U.K. discovery of the Appleton layer in the upper atmosphere
'Arafat, Yasir (Arafāt, Yāsirʿ) 1994 peace Palestinian
Arber, Werner 1978 physiology/
medicine Switzerland discovery and application of enzymes that fragment DNA
Arias Sánchez, Oscar 1987 peace Costa Rica
Arnoldson, Klas Pontus 1908 peace Sweden
Arrhenius, Svante (Arrhenius, Svante August) 1903 chemistry Sweden theory of electrolytic dissociation
Arrow, Kenneth J. 1972 economics U.S. contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory
Asser, Tobias Michael Carel 1911 peace The Netherlands
Aston, Francis William 1922 chemistry U.K. work with mass spectrograph; whole-number rule
Asturias, Miguel Ángel 1967 literature Guatemala novelist
Aumann, Robert J. 2005 economics Israel contributions to game-theory analysis
Aung San Suu Kyi 1991 peace Myanmar
Axel, Richard 2004 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system
Axelrod, Julius 1970 physiology/
medicine U.S. discoveries concerning the chemistry of nerve impulse transmission
B
name year category country* achievement literary area
Baeyer, Adolf von 1905 chemistry Germany work on organic dyes, hydroaromatic compounds
Bajer, Fredrik 1908 peace Denmark
Balch, Emily Greene 1946 peace U.S.
Baltimore, David 1975 physiology/
medicine U.S. interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell
medicine Canada discovery of insulin
Bárány, Robert 1914 physiology/
medicine Austria-Hungary work on vestibular apparatus
Bardeen, John 1956 physics U.S. investigations on semiconductors and invention of the transistor
Bardeen, John 1972 physics U.S. development of the theory of superconductivity
Barkla, Charles Glover 1917 physics U.K. discovery of characteristic X-radiation of elements
Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise (Barré-Sinoussi, Franƈoise) 2008 physiology/
medicine France discovery of human immunodeficiency virus
Barton, Sir Derek H.R. 1969 chemistry U.K. work in determining actual three-dimensional shapes of molecules
Basov, Nikolay Gennadiyevich 1964 physics U.S.S.R. work in quantum electronics leading to construction of instruments based on maser-laser principles
Beadle, George Wells 1958 physiology/
medicine U.S. genetic regulation of chemical processes
Becker, Gary S. 1992 economics U.S. application of economic theory to social sciences
Beckett, Samuel 1969 literature Ireland novelist,
dramatist
Becquerel, Henri 1903 physics France discovery of spontaneous radioactivity
Germany discovery of new superconducting materials
Begin, Menachem 1978 peace Israel
Behring, Emil von 1901 physiology/
medicine Germany work on serum therapy
Békésy, Georg von 1961 physiology/
medicine U.S. functions of the inner ear
Bellow, Saul 1976 literature U.S. novelist
Belo, Carlos Filipe Ximenes 1996 peace East Timor
Benacerraf, Baruj 1980 physiology/
medicine U.S. investigations of genetic control of the response of the immune system to foreign substances
Benavente y Martínez, Jacinto 1922 literature Spain dramatist
Berg, Paul 1980 chemistry U.S. first preparation of a hybrid DNA
Bergius, Friedrich 1931 chemistry Germany invention and development of chemical high-pressure methods
Bergson, Henri 1927 literature France philosopher
Bergström, Sune K. 1982 physiology/
medicine Sweden biochemistry and physiology of prostaglandins
Bethe, Hans Albrecht (Bethe, Hans) 1967 physics U.S. discoveries concerning the energy production of stars
Binnig, Gerd 1986 physics West
Germany development of electron microscopes
Bishop, J. Michael 1989 physiology/
medicine U.S. study of cancer-causing genes (oncogenes)
Bjørnson, Bjørnstjerne Martinius 1903 literature Norway novelist,
poet,
dramatist
Black, Sir James 1988 physiology/
medicine U.K. development of new classes of drugs for combating disease
Blackett, Patrick M.S. (Blackett, Patrick M.S., Baron Blackett of Chelsea) 1948 physics U.K. discoveries in the domain of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation
Blobel, Günter 1999 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery that proteins have signals governing cellular organization
Bloch, Felix 1952 physics U.S. discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance in solids
Bloch, Konrad (Bloch, Konrad E.) 1964 physiology/
medicine U.S. discoveries concerning cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism
Bloembergen, Nicolaas 1981 physics U.S. applications of lasers in spectroscopy
Blumberg, Baruch S. 1976 physiology/
medicine U.S. studies of origin and spread of infectious diseases
Bohr, Aage N. 1975 physics Denmark work on the atomic nucleus that paved the way for nuclear fusion
Bohr, Niels 1922 physics Denmark investigation of atomic structure and radiation
Böll, Heinrich 1972 literature West
Germany novelist
Bordet, Jules 1919 physiology/
medicine Belgium work on immunity factors in blood serum
Borlaug, Norman Ernest 1970 peace U.S.
Born, Max 1954 physics U.K. statistical studies of atomic wave functions
Bosch, Carl 1931 chemistry Germany invention and development of chemical high-pressure methods
Bothe, Walther 1954 physics West Germany invention of the coincidence method
Bourgeois, Léon 1920 peace France
Bovet, Daniel 1957 physiology/
medicine Italy production of synthetic curare
Boyer, Paul D. 1997 chemistry U.S. explanation of the enzymatic conversion of adenosine triphosphate
Bragg, Sir Lawrence 1915 physics U.K. analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays
Bragg, Sir William 1915 physics U.K. analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays
Brandt, Willy 1971 peace West
Germany
Branting, Karl Hjalmar 1921 peace Sweden
Brattain, Walter H. 1956 physics U.S. investigations on semiconductors and invention of the transistor
Braun, Ferdinand 1909 physics Germany development of wireless telegraphy
Brenner, Sydney 2002 physiology/
medicine U.K. discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death (apoptosis)
Briand, Aristide 1926 peace France
Bridgman, Percy Williams 1946 physics U.S. discoveries in the domain of high-pressure physics
Brockhouse, Bertram N. 1994 physics Canada development of neutron-scattering techniques
Brodsky, Joseph 1987 literature U.S. poet,
essayist
duc (duke) de (Broglie, Louis-Victor, 7e duc de) 1929 physics France discovery of the wave nature of electrons
Brown, Herbert Charles 1979 chemistry U.S. introduction of compounds of boron and phosphorus in the synthesis of organic substances
Brown, Michael S. 1985 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery of cell receptors relating to cholesterol metabolism
Buchanan, James M. 1986 economics U.S. public-choice theory bridging economics and political science
Buchner, Eduard 1907 chemistry Germany discovery of noncellular fermentation
Buck, Linda B. 2004 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system
Buck, Pearl 1938 literature U.S. novelist
Buisson, Ferdinand-Édouard 1927 peace France
Bunche, Ralph 1950 peace U.S.
Bunin, Ivan Alekseyevich 1933 literature U.S.S.R. poet, novelist
Burnet, Sir Macfarlane 1960 physiology/
medicine Australia acquired immunity to tissue transplants
Butenandt, Adolf (declined) 1939 chemistry Germany work on sexual hormones
Butler, Nicholas Murray 1931 peace U.S.
C
name year category country* achievement literary area
Calvin, Melvin 1961 chemistry U.S. study of chemical steps that take place during photosynthesis
Camus, Albert 1957 literature France novelist, dramatist
Canetti, Elias 1981 literature Bulgaria novelist, essayist
Capecchi, Mario R. 2007 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells
Carducci, Giosuè 1906 literature Italy poet
Carlsson, Arvid 2000 physiology/
medicine Sweden discovery of how signals are transmitted between nerve cells in the brain
Carrel, Alexis (Carlsson, Arvid) 1912 physiology/
medicine France work on vascular suture; transplantation of organs
Carter, Jimmy 2002 peace U.S.
Cassin, René 1968 peace France
Cech, Thomas Robert 1989 chemistry U.S. discovery of certain basic properties of RNA
Cecil (of Chelwood), Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount (Cecil, Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount) 1937 peace U.K.
Cela, Camilo José 1989 literature Spain novelist
Chadwick, Sir James 1935 physics U.K. discovery of the neutron
Chain, Sir Ernst Boris 1945 physiology/
medicine U.K. discovery of penicillin and its curative value
Chalfie, Martin 2008 chemistry U.S. discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP
Chamberlain, Sir Austen 1925 peace U.K.
Chamberlain, Owen 1959 physics U.S. confirmation of the existence of the antiproton
Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan 1983 physics U.S. contributions to understanding the evolution and devolution of stars
Charpak, Georges 1992 physics France invention of a detector that traces subatomic particles
Chauvin, Yves 2005 chemistry France development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis
Cherenkov, Pavel Alekseyevich 1958 physics U.S.S.R. discovery and interpretation of the Cherenkov effect
Chu, Steven 1997 physics U.S. process of trapping atoms with laser cooling
Churchill, Sir Winston 1953 literature U.K. historian, orator
Ciechanover, Aaron (Ciechanover, Aaron J.) 2004 chemistry Israel discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation
Claude, Albert 1974 physiology/
medicine U.S. research on structural and functional organization of cells
Coase, Ronald 1991 economics U.S. application of economic principles to the study of law
Cockcroft, Sir John Douglas 1951 physics U.K. work on transmutation of atomic nuclei by accelerated particles
Coetzee, J.M. 2003 literature South Africa novelist
Cohen, Stanley 1986 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery of chemical agents that help regulate the growth of cells
Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude 1997 physics France process of trapping atoms with laser cooling
Compton, Arthur Holly 1927 physics U.S. discovery of wavelength change in diffused X-rays
Cooper, Leon N. 1972 physics U.S. development of the theory of superconductivity
Corey, Elias James 1990 chemistry U.S. development of retrosynthetic analysis for synthesis of complex molecules
Cori, Carl and Gerty (Cori, Carl; and Cori, Gerty) 1947 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery of how glycogen is catalytically converted
Cormack, Allan MacLeod 1979 physiology/
medicine U.S. development of the CAT scan
Cornforth, Sir John Warcup (Cornforth, Sir John) 1975 chemistry U.K. work in stereochemistry
Corrigan, Mairéad (Corrigan-Maguire, Mairéad) 1976 peace Northern Ireland
Cournand, André F. 1956 physiology/
medicine U.S. discoveries concerning heart catheterization and circulatory changes
Cram, Donald J. 1987 chemistry U.S. development of molecules that can link with other molecules
Cremer, Sir Randal 1903 peace U.K.
medicine U.K. discoveries concerning the molecular structure of DNA
Cronin, James Watson 1980 physics U.S. demonstration of simultaneous violation of both charge- conjugation and parity-inversion symmetries
Crutzen, Paul 1995 chemistry The Netherlands explanation of processes that deplete Earth's ozone layer
Curie, Marie 1903 physics France investigations of radiation phenomena discovered by Becquerel
Curie, Marie 1911 chemistry France discovery of radium and polonium; isolation of radium
Curie, Pierre 1903 physics France investigations of radiation phenomena discovered by Becquerel
Curl, Robert F., Jr. 1996 chemistry U.S. discovery of new carbon compounds called fullerenes
D
name year category country* achievement literary area
Dalai Lama 1989 peace Tibet
Dale, Sir Henry 1936 physiology/
medicine U.K. work on chemical transmission of nerve impulses
Dalén, Nils 1912 physics Sweden invention of automatic regulators for lighting coastal beacons and light buoys
Dam, Henrik 1943 physiology/
medicine Denmark discovery of vitamin K
Gabriel-Joachim (Dausset, Jean) 1980 physiology/
medicine France investigations of genetic control of the response of the immune system to foreign substances
Davis, Raymond, Jr. 2002 physics U.S. detection of neutrinos
Joseph (Davisson, Clinton Joseph) 1937 physics U.S. experimental demonstration of the interference phenomenon in crystals irradiated by electrons
Dawes, Charles G. 1925 peace U.S.
de Klerk, F.W. 1993 peace South Africa
Debreu, Gerard 1983 economics U.S. mathematical proof of supply-and-demand theory
Debye, Peter 1936 chemistry The
Netherlands work on dipole moments and diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases
Dehmelt, Hans Georg 1989 physics U.S. development of methods to isolate atoms and subatomic particles for study
Deisenhofer, Johann 1988 chemistry West Germany discovery of the structure of proteins needed in photosynthesis
Delbrück, Max 1969 physiology/
medicine U.S. research and discoveries concerning viruses and viral diseases
Deledda, Grazia 1926 literature Italy novelist
Hermann (Diels, Otto Paul Hermann) 1950 chemistry West Germany discovery and development of diene synthesis
Dirac, P.A.M. 1933 physics U.K. introduction of wave equations in quantum mechanics
Doctors Without Borders 1999 peace (founded 1971)
Doherty, Peter C. 1996 physiology/
medicine Australia discovery of how the immune system recognizes virus-infected cells
Doisy, Edward Adelbert 1943 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K
(declined) 1939 physiology/
medicine Germany antibacterial effect of Prontosil
du Vigneaud, Vincent 1955 chemistry U.S. first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone
Ducommun, Élie 1902 peace Switzerland
Dulbecco, Renato 1975 physiology/
medicine U.S. interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell
Dunant, Henri 1901 peace Switzerland
Duve, Christian René de 1974 physiology/
medicine Belgium research on structural and functional organization of cells
E
name year category country* achievement literary area
Ebadi, Shirin (Maathai, Wangari) 2003 peace Iran
Eccles, Sir John Carew 1963 physiology/
medicine Australia study of the transmission of impulses along a nerve fibre
Eizaguirre, José (Echegaray y Eizaguirre, José) 1904 literature Spain dramatist
Edelman, Gerald Maurice 1972 physiology/
medicine U.S. research on the chemical structure of antibodies
Egas Moniz, António 1949 physiology/
medicine Portugal therapeutic value of leucotomy in psychoses
Ehrlich, Paul 1908 physiology/
medicine Germany work on immunity
Eigen, Manfred 1967 chemistry West Germany studies of extremely fast chemical reactions
Eijkman, Christiaan 1929 physiology/
medicine The Netherlands discovery of the antineuritic vitamin
Einstein, Albert 1921 physics Switzerland work in theoretical physics
Einthoven, Willem 1924 physiology/
medicine The Netherlands discovery of electrocardiogram mechanism
ElBaradei, Mohamed 2005 peace Egypt
Elion, Gertrude Belle (Elion, Gertrude B.) 1988 physiology/
medicine U.S. development of new classes of drugs for combating disease
Eliot, T.S. 1948 literature U.K. poet, critic
Elytis, Odysseus 1979 literature Greece poet
Enders, John Franklin 1954 physiology/
medicine U.S. cultivation of the poliomyelitis virus in tissue cultures
Engle, Robert F. 2003 economics U.S. development of techniques for the analysis of time series data
Erlanger, Joseph 1944 physiology/
medicine U.S. researches on differentiated functions of nerve fibres
Ernst, Richard R. 1991 chemistry Switzerland improvements in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Ertl, Gerhard 2007 chemistry Germany studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces
Esaki, Leo 1973 physics Japan tunneling in semiconductors and superconductors
Estournelles de Constant, Paul-H.-B. d' 1909 peace France
Eucken, Rudolf Christoph 1908 literature Germany philosopher
Euler, Ulf von 1970 physiology/
medicine Sweden discoveries concerning the chemistry of nerve impulse transmission
von (Euler-Chelpin, Hans von) 1929 chemistry Sweden investigations in the fermentation of sugars and the enzyme action involved
Evans, Sir Martin J. 2007 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells
F
name year category country* achievement literary area
Faulkner, William 1949 literature U.S. novelist
Fenn, John B. 2002 chemistry U.S. development of techniques to identify and analyze proteins and other large molecules
Fermi, Enrico 1938 physics Italy disclosure of artificial radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation
Fert, Albert 2007 physics France discovery of giant magnetoresistance
Feynman, Richard P. 1965 physics U.S. basic principles of quantum electrodynamics
Fibiger, Johannes 1926 physiology/
medicine Denmark contributions to cancer research
Finsen, Niels Ryberg 1903 physiology/
medicine Denmark treatment of skin diseases with light
Fire, Andrew Z. 2006 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery of RNA interference—gene silencing by double-stranded RNA
Fischer, Edmond H. 1992 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery of the class of enzymes called protein kinases
Fischer, Emil 1902 chemistry Germany work on sugar and purine syntheses
Fischer, Ernst Otto 1973 chemistry West Germany organometallic chemistry
Fischer, Hans 1930 chemistry Germany hemin, chlorophyll research; synthesis of hemin
Fitch, Val Logsdon 1980 physics U.S. demonstration of simultaneous violation of both charge-conjugation and parity-inversion symmetries
Fleming, Sir Alexander 1945 physiology/
medicine U.K. discovery of penicillin and its curative value
Florey, Baron (Florey, Howard Walter Florey, Baron) 1945 physiology/
medicine Australia discovery of penicillin and its curative value
Flory, Paul J. 1974 chemistry U.S. studies of long-chain molecules
Fo, Dario 1997 literature Italy dramatist, actor
Fogel, Robert William 1993 economics U.S. contributions to economic history
Forssmann, Werner 1956 physiology/
medicine West Germany discoveries concerning heart catheterization and circulatory changes
Fowler, William A. 1983 physics U.S. contributions to understanding the evolution and devolution of stars
France, Anatole 1921 literature France novelist
Franck, James 1925 physics Germany discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom
Mikhaylovich (Frank, Ilya Mikhaylovich) 1958 physics U.S.S.R. discovery and interpretation of the Cherenkov effect
Fried, Alfred Hermann 1911 peace Austria-Hungary
Friedman, Jerome Isaac 1990 physics U.S. discovery of quarks
Friedman, Milton 1976 economics U.S. consumption analysis, monetary theory, and economic stabilization
(FSC) (Friends Service Council) 1947 peace U.K.
Frisch, Karl von 1973 physiology/
medicine Austria discoveries in animal behaviour patterns
Frisch, Ragnar 1969 economics Norway work in econometrics
Fukui Kenichi 1981 chemistry Japan orbital symmetry interpretation of chemical reactions
Furchgott, Robert F. 1998 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery that nitric oxide (NO) acts as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system
G
name year category country* achievement literary area
Gabor, Dennis 1971 physics U.K. invention of holography
Gajdusek, D. Carleton 1976 physiology/
medicine U.S. studies of the origin and spread of infectious diseases
Galsworthy, John 1932 literature U.K. novelist
Gao Xingjian 2000 literature France novelist, dramatist
García Márquez, Gabriel 1982 literature Colombia novelist, journalist, social critic
García Robles, Alfonso 1982 peace Mexico
Gasser, Herbert Spencer 1944 physiology/
medicine U.S. researches on differentiated functions of nerve fibres
Gell-Mann, Murray 1969 physics U.S. classification of elementary particles and their interactions
Gennes, Pierre-Gilles de 1991 physics France discovery of general rules for behaviour of molecules
Giacconi, Riccardo 2002 physics U.S. seminal discoveries of cosmic sources of X-rays
Giaever, Ivar 1973 physics U.S. tunneling in semiconductors and superconductors
Giauque, William Francis 1949 chemistry U.S. behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures
Gide, André 1947 literature France novelist, essayist
Gilbert, Walter 1980 chemistry U.S. development of chemical and biological analyses of DNA structure
Gilman, Alfred G. 1994 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery of cell signalers called G-proteins
Ginzburg, Vitaly L. (Ginzburg, Vitaly Lazarevich) 2003 physics Russia discoveries regarding superconductivity and superfluidity at very low temperatures
Gjellerup, Karl Adolph 1917 literature Denmark novelist
Glaser, Donald A. 1960 physics U.S. development of the bubble chamber
Glashow, Sheldon Lee 1979 physics U.S. unification of electromagnetism and the weak interactions of subatomic particles
Glauber, Roy J. 2005 physics U.S. contributions to the field of optics
Gobat, Charles-Albert 1902 peace Switzerland
Golding, Sir William 1983 literature U.K. novelist
Goldstein, Joseph L. 1985 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery of cell receptors relating to cholesterol metabolism
Golgi, Camillo 1906 physiology/
medicine Italy work on the structure of the nervous system
Gorbachev, Mikhail 1990 peace U.S.S.R.
Gordimer, Nadine 1991 literature South Africa novelist
Gore, Al 2007 peace U.S.
Grameen Bank 2006 peace (founded 1976)
Granger, Clive W.J. 2003 economics U.K. development of techniques for the analysis of time series data
Granit, Ragnar Arthur 1967 physiology/
medicine Sweden discoveries about chemical and physiological visual processes in the eye
Grass, Günter 1999 literature Germany novelist
Greengard, Paul 2000 physiology/ medicine U.S. discovery of how signals are transmitted between nerve cells in the brain
Grignard, Victor 1912 chemistry France discovery of the Grignard reagents
Gross, David J. 2004 physics U.S. discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction
Grubbs, Robert H. 2005 chemistry U.S. development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis
Grünberg, Peter 2007 physics Germany discovery of giant magnetoresistance
Guillaume, Charles Édouard 1920 physics Switzerland discovery of anomalies in alloys
medicine U.S. research on pituitary hormones
Gullstrand, Allvar 1911 physiology/
medicine Sweden work on dioptrics of the eye
H
name year category country* achievement literary area
Haavelmo, Trygve 1989 economic
science Norway development of statistical techniques for economic forecasting
Haber, Fritz 1918 chemistry Germany synthesis of ammonia
Hahn, Otto 1944 chemistry Germany discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei
Hall, John L. 2005 physics U.S. contributions to the development of laser spectroscopy
Hammarskjöld, Dag 1961 peace Sweden
Hamsun, Knut 1920 literature Norway novelist
Hänsch, Theodor W. 2005 physics Germany contributions to the development of laser spectroscopy
Harden, Sir Arthur 1929 chemistry U.K. investigations in the fermentation of sugars and the enzyme action involved
Harsanyi, John C. 1994 economics U.S. development of game theory
Hartline, Haldan Keffer 1967 physiology/
medicine U.S. discoveries about chemical and physiological visual processes in the eye
Hassel, Odd 1969 chemistry Norway work in determining actual three-dimensional shapes of molecules
Hauptman, Herbert A. 1985 chemistry U.S. development of a way to map the chemical structures of small molecules
Hauptmann, Gerhart 1912 literature Germany dramatist
Haworth, Sir Norman 1937 chemistry U.K. research on carbohydrates and vitamin C
Hayek, Friedrich von (Hayek, F.A.) 1974 economics U.K. pioneering analysis of the interdependence of economic, social, and institutional phenomena
Heaney, Seamus 1995 literature Ireland poet
Heckman, James J. 2000 economics U.S.
development of methods of statistical analysis of individual and household behaviour
Heeger, Alan J. 2000 chemistry U.S. discovery of plastics that conduct electricity
Heidenstam, Verner von 1916 literature Sweden poet
Heisenberg, Werner 1932 physics Germany creation of quantum mechanics
Hemingway, Ernest 1954 literature U.S. novelist
Hench, Philip Showalter 1950 physiology/
medicine U.S. research on adrenal cortex hormones, their structure and biological effects
Henderson, Arthur 1934 peace U.K.
Herschbach, Dudley R. 1986 chemistry U.S. development of methods for analyzing basic chemical reactions
Hershey, A.D. 1969 physiology/
medicine U.S. research and discoveries concerning viruses and viral diseases
Hershko, Avram 2004 chemistry Israel discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation
Hertz, Gustav 1925 physics Germany discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom
Herzberg, Gerhard 1971 chemistry Canada research in the structure of molecules
Hess, Victor Francis 1936 physics Austria discovery of cosmic radiation
Hess, Walter Rudolf 1949 physiology/
medicine Switzerland discovery of functions of the interbrain
Hesse, Hermann 1946 literature Switzerland novelist
Hevesy, Georg Charles von 1943 chemistry Hungary use of isotopes as tracers in chemical research
Hewish, Antony 1974 physics U.K. work in radio astronomy
Heymans, Corneille 1938 physiology/
medicine Belgium discovery of the role of sinus and aortic mechanisms in respiration regulation
Heyrovský, Jaroslav 1959 chemistry Czech. discovery and development of polarography
Heyse, Paul Johann Ludwig von 1910 literature Germany poet, novelist, dramatist
Hicks, Sir John R. 1972 economics U.K. contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory
Hill, A.V. 1922 physiology/
medicine U.K. discoveries concerning heat production in muscles
Hinshelwood, Sir Cyril Norman 1956 chemistry U.K. work on the kinetics of chemical reactions
Hitchings, George Herbert 1988 physiology/
medicine U.S. development of new classes of drugs for combating disease
Hodgkin, Sir Alan 1963 physiology/
medicine U.K. study of the transmission of impulses along a nerve fibre
Hodgkin, Dorothy Mary Crowfoot (Hodgkin, Dorothy Crowfoot) 1964 chemistry U.K. determining the structure of biochemical compounds essential in combating pernicious anemia
Hoff, Jacobus Henricus van 't 1901 chemistry The Netherlands laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure
Hoffmann, Roald 1981 chemistry U.S. orbital symmetry interpretation of chemical reactions
Hofstadter, Robert 1961 physics U.S. determination of the shape and size of atomic nucleons
Holley, Robert William 1968 physiology/
medicine U.S. deciphering the genetic code
Hooft, Gerardus 't 1999 physics The Netherlands study of the quantum structure of electroweak interactions
medicine U.K. discovery of growth-stimulating vitamins
Horvitz, H. Robert 2002 physiology/
medicine U.S. discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death (apoptosis)
medicine U.K. development of the CAT scan
Houssay, Bernardo Alberto 1947 physiology/
medicine Argentina pituitary hormone function in sugar metabolism
Hubel, David Hunter 1981 physiology/
medicine U.S. processing of visual information by the brain
Huber, Robert 1988 chemistry West Germany discovery of the structure of proteins needed in photosynthesis
Huggins, Charles B. 1966 physiology/
medicine U.S. research on causes and treatment of cancer
Hull, Cordell 1945 peace U.S.
Hulse, Russell Alan 1993 physics U.S. identifying binary pulsars
Hume, John 1998 peace Northern Ireland
Hurwicz, Leonid 2007 economics U.S. work that laid the foundations of mechanism design theory
Huxley, Sir Andrew Fielding 1963 physiology/
medicine U.K. study of the transmission of impulses along a nerve fibre
I
name year category country* achievement literary area
Ignarro, Louis J. 1998 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery that nitric oxide (NO) acts as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system
Institute of International Law (International Law, Institute of) 1904 peace (founded 1873)
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007 peace (founded 1988)
International Atomic Energy Agency 2005 peace (founded 1957)
International Campaign to Ban Landmines 1997 peace (founded 1992)
International Committee of the Red Cross 1917 peace (founded 1863)
International Committee of the Red Cross 1944 peace (founded 1863)
International Committee of the Red Cross 1963 peace (founded 1863)
International Labour Organisation (International Labour Organization) 1969 peace (founded 1919)
International Peace Bureau 1910 peace (founded 1891)
J
name year category country* achievement literary area
Jacob, François 1965 physiology/
medicine France discoveries concerning regulatory activities of body cells
Jelinek, Elfriede 2004 literature Austria novelist, playwright
Jensen, J. Hans D. 1963 physics West
Germany development of the shell model theory of the structure of atomic nuclei
Jensen, Johannes V. 1944 literature Denmark novelist
Jerne, Niels K. 1984 physiology/
medicine U.K.- Denmark theory and development of a technique for producing monoclonal antibodies
Jiménez, Juan Ramón 1956 literature Spain poet
Johnson, Eyvind 1974 literature Sweden novelist
Joliot-Curie, Frédéric and Irène 1935 chemistry France synthesis of new radioactive elements
Josephson, Brian D. 1973 physics U.K. tunneling in semiconductors and superconductors
Jouhaux, Léon 1951 peace France
K
name year category country* achievement literary area
Kahneman, Daniel 2002 economics U.S./Israel integration of psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision making under uncertainty
Kamerlingh Onnes, Heike 1913 physics The Netherlands investigation into the properties of matter at low temperatures; production of liquid helium
Kandel, Eric 2000 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery of how signals are transmitted between nerve cells in the brain
Kantorovich, Leonid Vitalyevich 1975 economics U.S.S.R. contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources
Kapitsa, Pyotr Leonidovich 1978 physics U.S.S.R. invention and application of a helium liquefier
Karle, Jerome 1985 chemistry U.S. development of a way to map the chemical structures of small molecules
Axel (Karlfeldt, Erik Axel) (declined) 1918 literature Sweden poet
Axel (Karlfeldt, Erik Axel) (posthumous award) 1931 literature Sweden poet
Karrer, Paul 1937 chemistry Switzerland research on carotenoids, flavins, and vitamins
Kastler, Alfred 1966 physics France discovery of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms
Bernard (Katz, Sir Bernard) 1970 physiology/
medicine U.K. discoveries concerning the chemistry of nerve impulse transmission
Kawabata Yasunari 1968 literature Japan novelist
Kellogg, Frank B. 1929 peace U.S.
Kendall, Edward Calvin 1950 physiology/
medicine U.S. research on adrenal cortex hormones, their structure and biological effects
Kendall, Henry Way 1990 physics U.S. discovery of quarks
Kendrew, John Cowdery (Kendrew, Sir John Cowdery) 1962 chemistry U.K. determination of the structure of hemoproteins
Kertész, Imre 2002 literature Hungary novelist
Khorana, Har Gobind 1968 physiology/
medicine U.S. deciphering the genetic code
Kilby, Jack S. (Kilby, Jack) 2000 physics U.S. development of the integrated circuit (microchip)
Kim Dae Jung 2000 peace South Korea
King, Martin Luther, Jr. 1964 peace U.S.
Kipling, Rudyard 1907 literature U.K. poet, novelist
Kissinger, Henry A. 1973 peace U.S.
Klein, Lawrence Robert 1980 economics U.S. development and analysis of empirical models of business fluctuations
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Germany discovery of the quantized Hall effect, permitting exact measurements of electrical resistance
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Kobayashi Makoto 2008 physics Japan discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature
Koch, Robert 1905 physiology/
medicine Germany tuberculosis research
Kocher, Emil Theodor 1909 physiology/
medicine Switzerland physiology, pathology, and surgery of the thyroid gland
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medicine West
Germany theory and development of a technique for producing monoclonal antibodies
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medicine U.S. work on producing nucleic acids artificially
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Koshiba Masatoshi 2002 physics Japan detection of neutrinos
Kossel, Albrecht 1910 physiology/
medicine Germany research in cellular chemistry
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medicine U.S. discovery of the class of enzymes called protein kinases
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medicine U.K. discovery of the citric acid cycle in metabolism of carbohydrates
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medicine Denmark discovery of the capillary motor-regulating mechanism
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Lagerkvist, Pär 1951 literature Sweden novelist
Lagerlöf, Selma 1909 literature Sweden novelist
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Karl (Landsteiner, Karl) 1930 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery of human blood groups
Lange, Christian Lous 1921 peace Norway
Langmuir, Irving 1932 chemistry U.S. discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry
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Robert B. (Laughlin, Robert B.) 1998 physics U.S. discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect
Lauterbur, Paul 2003 physiology/
medicine U.S. development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Alphonse (Laveran, Alphonse) 1907 physiology/
medicine France discovery of the role of protozoans in diseases
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Laxness, Halldór 1955 literature Iceland novelist
Le Clézio, Jean-Marie Gustave 2008 literature France novelist,
essayist
Le Duc Tho (declined) 1973 peace North
Vietnam
League of Red Cross Societies (International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies) 1963 peace
Joshua (Lederberg, Joshua) 1958 physiology/
medicine U.S. genetic recombination
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Leontief, Wassily 1973 economics U.S. input-output analysis
Lessing, Doris 2007 literature U.K. novelist
Levi-Montalcini, Rita 1986 physiology/
medicine Italy discovery of chemical agents that help regulate the growth of cells
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B. (Lewis, Edward B.) 1995 physiology/
medicine U.S. identification of genes that control the body's early structural development
Lewis, Sinclair 1930 literature U.S. novelist
Libby, Willard Frank 1960 chemistry U.S. development of radiocarbon dating
Lipmann, Fritz Albert 1953 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery of coenzyme A in metabolism of carbohydrates
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Lipscomb, William Nunn, Jr. 1976 chemistry U.S. structure of boranes
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medicine Germany work on chemical transmission of nerve impulses
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Lorenz, Konrad 1973 physiology/
medicine Austria discoveries in animal behaviour patterns
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Luria, Salvador 1969 physiology/
medicine U.S. research and discoveries concerning viruses and viral diseases
John (Luthuli, Albert John) 1960 peace South Africa
Lwoff, André 1965 physiology/
medicine France discoveries concerning regulatory activities of body cells
Lynen, Feodor 1964 physiology/
medicine West
Germany discoveries concerning cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism
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Maathai, Wangari 2004 peace Kenya  
MacBride, Seán 1974 peace Ireland
MacDiarmid, Alan G. 2000 chemistry U.S. discovery of plastics that conduct electricity  
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Macleod, J.J.R. 1923 physiology/
medicine U.K. discovery of insulin
Maeterlinck, Maurice 1911 literature Belgium dramatist
Mahfouz, Naguib 1988 literature Egypt novelist
Mandela, Nelson 1993 peace South Africa
Mann, Thomas 1929 literature Germany novelist
Mansfield, Sir Peter 2003 physiology/
medicine U.K. development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Marconi, Guglielmo 1909 physics Italy development of wireless telegraphy
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Markowitz, Harry M. 1990 economics U.S. study of financial markets and investment decision making
Marshall, Barry J. 2005 physiology/
medicine Australia discovery of bacteria's role in peptic ulcer disease
Marshall, George C. (Marshall, George Catlett) 1953 peace U.S.
Martin, A.J.P. 1952 chemistry U.K. development of partition chromatography
Martin du Gard, Roger 1937 literature France novelist
Martinson, Harry 1974 literature Sweden novelist, poet
Maskawa Toshihide 2008 physics Japan discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature
Maskin, Eric S. 2007 economics U.S. work that laid the foundations of mechanism design theory
Mather, John C. 2006 physics U.S. discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation
Mauriac, François 1952 literature France poet, novelist, dramatist
Mayer, Maria Goeppert 1963 physics U.S. development of the shell model theory of the structure of atomic nuclei
McClintock, Barbara 1983 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery of mobile plant genes that affect heredity
McFadden, Daniel L. 2000 economics U.S. development of methods of statistical analysis of individual and household behaviour  
McMillan, Edwin Mattison 1951 chemistry U.S. discovery of and research on transuranium elements
Meade, James Edward 1977 economics U.K. contributions to the theory of international trade
Medawar, Sir Peter B. 1960 physiology/
medicine U.K. acquired immunity to tissue transplants
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Mello, Craig C. 2006 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery of RNA interference—gene silencing by double-stranded RNA
Menchú, Rigoberta 1992 peace Guatemala
Merrifield, Bruce 1984 chemistry U.S. development of a method of polypeptide synthesis
Merton, Robert C. 1997 economics U.S. method for determining the value of stock options and other derivatives
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medicine Russia work on immunity
Meyerhof, Otto 1922 physiology/
medicine Germany work on metabolism of lactic acid in muscles
Michel, Hartmut 1988 chemistry West Germany discovery of the structure of proteins needed in photosynthesis
Michelson, A.A. 1907 physics U.S. spectroscopic and metrological investigations
Miller, Merton H. 1990 economics U.S. study of financial markets and investment decision making
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Milosz, Czeslaw (Miłosz, Czesław) 1980 literature U.S. poet
Milstein, César 1984 physiology/
medicine Argentina theory and development of a technique for producing monoclonal antibodies
Minot, George Richards 1934 physiology/
medicine U.S. discoveries concerning liver treatment for anemia
Mirrlees, James A. 1996 economics U.K. contributions to the theory of incentives under conditions of asymmetric information
Mistral, Frédéric 1904 literature France poet
Mistral, Gabriela 1945 literature Chile poet
Mitchell, Peter Dennis 1978 chemistry U.K. formulation of a theory of energy-transfer processes in biological systems
Modigliani, Franco 1985 economics U.S. analyses of household savings and financial markets
Moissan, Henri 1906 chemistry France isolation of fluorine; introduction of the Moissan furnace
Molina, Mario 1995 chemistry U.S. explanation of processes that deplete Earth's ozone layer
Mommsen, Theodor 1902 literature Germany historian
Moneta, Ernesto Teodoro 1907 peace Italy
Monod, Jacques 1965 physiology/
medicine France discoveries concerning regulatory activities of body cells
Montagnier, Luc 2008 physiology/
medicine France discovery of human immunodeficiency virus
Montale, Eugenio 1975 literature Italy poet
Moore, Stanford 1972 chemistry U.S. fundamental contributions to enzyme chemistry
Morgan, Thomas Hunt 1933 physiology/medicine U.S. heredity transmission functions of chromosomes
Morrison, Toni 1993 literature U.S. novelist
Mössbauer, Rudolf Ludwig 1961 physics West Germany discovery of the Mössbauer effect
Mott, John R. 1946 peace U.S.
Mott, Sir Nevill F. 1977 physics U.K. contributions to understanding the behaviour of electrons in magnetic, noncrystalline solids
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medicine U.S. production of mutations by X-radiation
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Müller, Paul Hermann 1948 physiology/
medicine Switzerland properties of DDT
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Mullis, Kary B. 1993 chemistry U.S. invention of techniques for gene study and manipulation
Mundell, Robert A. 1999 economics Canada analysis of optimum currency areas and of policy under different exchange-rate regimes
Murad, Ferid 1998 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery that nitric oxide (NO) acts as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system
Murphy, William P. 1934 physiology/
medicine U.S. discoveries concerning liver treatment for anemia
Murray, Joseph E. 1990 physiology/
medicine U.S. development of kidney and bone marrow transplants
Myerson, Roger B. 2007 economics U.S. work that laid the foundations of mechanism design theory
Myrdal, Alva (Myrdal, Alva Reimer) 1982 peace Sweden
Myrdal, Gunnar 1974 economics Sweden pioneering analysis of the interdependence of economic, social, and institutional phenomena
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Nansen, Fridtjof 1922 peace Norway
Nansen International Office for Refugees 1938 peace (founded 1931)
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medicine U.S. discovery and application of enzymes that fragment DNA
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Neher, Erwin 1991 physiology/
medicine Germany discovery of how cells communicate, as related to disease
Nernst, Walther Hermann 1920 chemistry Germany work in thermochemistry
Neruda, Pablo 1971 literature Chile poet
medicine France work on typhus
Nirenberg, Marshall Warren 1968 physiology/
medicine U.S. deciphering the genetic code
Noel-Baker (of the City of Derby), Philip John Noel-Baker, Baron (Noel-Baker, Philip John Noel-Baker, Baron) 1959 peace U.K.
Norrish, Ronald George Wreyford 1967 chemistry U.K. studies of extremely fast chemical reactions
North, Douglass C. 1993 economics U.S. contributions to economic history
Northrop, John Howard 1946 chemistry U.S. preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in pure form
medicine Germany identification of genes that control the body's early structural development
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medicine U.S. work on producing nucleic acids artificially
Oe Kenzaburo (Ōe Kenzaburō) 1994 literature Japan novelist
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Olah, George A. 1994 chemistry U.S. development of techniques to study hydrocarbon molecules
O'Neill, Eugene 1936 literature U.S. dramatist
Onsager, Lars 1968 chemistry U.S. work on the theory of thermodynamics of irreversible processes
Osheroff, Douglas D. 1996 physics U.S. discovery of superfluidity in the isotope helium-3
Ossietzky, Carl von 1935 peace Germany
Ostwald, Wilhelm 1909 chemistry Germany pioneer work on catalysis, chemical equilibrium, and reaction velocities
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Pamuk, Orhan 2006 literature Turkey novelist
Passy, Frédéric 1901 peace France
Pasternak, Boris Leonidovich (declined) 1958 literature U.S.S.R. novelist, poet
Paul, Wolfgang 1989 physics West Germany methods to isolate atoms and subatomic particles for study
Pauli, Wolfgang 1945 physics Austria discovery of the exclusion principle of electrons
Pauling, Linus 1954 chemistry U.S. study of the nature of the chemical bond
Pauling, Linus 1962 peace U.S.
Pavlov, Ivan Petrovich 1904 physiology/ medicine Russia work on the physiology of digestion
Paz, Octavio 1990 literature Mexico poet, essayist
Pearson, Lester B. 1957 peace Canada
Pedersen, Charles J. 1987 chemistry U.S. development of molecules that can link with other molecules
Penzias, Arno 1978 physics U.S. discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation, providing support for the big-bang theory
Peres, Shimon 1994 peace Israel
Pérez Esquivel, Adolfo 1980 peace Argentina
Perl, Martin Lewis 1995 physics U.S. discovery of the tau subatomic particle
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Pinter, Harold 2005 literature U.K. playwright
Pirandello, Luigi 1934 literature Italy dramatist
Pire, Dominique 1958 peace Belgium
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Polanyi, John C. 1986 chemistry Canada development of methods for analyzing basic chemical reactions
Politzer, H. David 2004 physics U.S. discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction
Pontoppidan, Henrik 1917 literature Denmark novelist
Pople, John A. (Pople, Sir John A.) 1998 chemistry U.K. development of computational methods in quantum chemistry
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Porter, Rodney Robert 1972 physiology/ medicine U.K. research on the chemical structure of antibodies
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Pregl, Fritz 1923 chemistry Austria method of microanalysis of organic substances
Prelog, Vladimir 1975 chemistry Switzerland work in stereochemistry
Prescott, Edward C. 2004 economics U.S. contributions to dynamic macroeconomics
Prigogine, Ilya 1977 chemistry Belgium widening the scope of thermodynamics
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Prusiner, Stanley B. 1997 physiology/ medicine U.S. discovery of the prion, a type of disease-causing protein
Pugwash Conferences 1995 peace (founded 1957)
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Q
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Quasimodo, Salvatore 1959 literature Italy poet
Quidde, Ludwig 1927 peace Germany
R
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Rabin, Yitzhak 1994 peace Israel
Rainwater, James 1975 physics U.S. work on the atomic nucleus that paved the way for nuclear fusion
Raman, Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata 1930 physics India work on light diffusion; discovery of the Raman effect
Ramón y Cajal, Santiago 1906 physiology/ medicine Spain work on the structure of the nervous system
Ramos-Horta, José 1996 peace East Timor
Ramsay, Sir William 1904 chemistry U.K. discovery of inert gas elements and their places in the periodic system
Ramsey, Norman Foster 1989 physics U.S. development of the atomic clock
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Reichstein, Tadeus 1950 physiology/ medicine Switzerland research on adrenal cortex hormones, their structure and biological effects
Reines, Frederick 1995 physics U.S. discovery of the neutrino
Renault, Louis 1907 peace France
Reymont, Wladyslaw Stanislaw (Reymont, Władysław Stanisław) 1924 literature Poland novelist
Richards, Dickinson Woodruff 1956 physiology/ medicine U.S. discoveries concerning heart catheterization and circulatory changes
Richards, Theodore William 1914 chemistry U.S. accurate determination of the atomic weights of numerous elements
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Richet, Charles 1913 physiology/ medicine France work on anaphylaxis
Richter, Burton 1976 physics U.S. discovery of a new class of elementary particles (psi, or J)
Robbins, Frederick Chapman 1954 physiology/ medicine U.S. cultivation of the poliomyelitis virus in tissue cultures
Roberts, Richard J. 1993 physiology/ medicine U.K. discovery of "split," or interrupted, genetic structure
Robinson, Sir Robert 1947 chemistry U.K. investigation of alkaloids and other plant products
Rodbell, Martin 1994 physiology/ medicine U.S. discovery of cell signalers called G-proteins
Rohrer, Heinrich 1986 physics Switzerland development of electron microscopes
Rolland, Romain 1915 literature France novelist
Röntgen, Wilhelm Conrad 1901 physics Germany discovery of X-rays
Roosevelt, Theodore 1906 peace U.S.
Root, Elihu 1912 peace U.S.
Rose, Irwin 2004 chemistry U.S. discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation
Ross, Sir Ronald 1902 physiology/ medicine U.K. discovery of how malaria enters an organism
Rotblat, Joseph (Rotblat, Sir Joseph) 1995 peace U.K.
Rous, Peyton 1966 physiology/ medicine U.S. research on causes and treatment of cancer
Rowland, F. Sherwood 1995 chemistry U.S. explanation of processes that deplete Earth's ozone layer
Rubbia, Carlo 1984 physics Italy discovery of subatomic particles W and Z, which supports the electroweak theory
Ruska, Ernst 1986 physics West Germany development of electron microscopes
Russell, Bertrand 1950 literature U.K. philosopher
Rutherford, Ernest (Rutherford, Ernest, Baron Rutherford of Nelson, of Cambridge) 1908 chemistry U.K. investigations into the disintegration of elements and the chemistry of radioactive substances
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Sabatier, Paul 1912 chemistry France method of hydrogenating organic compounds
Sachs, Nelly 1966 literature Sweden poet
Sadat, Anwar el- (Sādāt, Anwar el-) 1978 peace Egypt
Saint-John Perse 1960 literature France poet
Sakharov, Andrey Dmitriyevich 1975 peace U.S.S.R.
Sakmann, Bert 1991 physiology/
medicine Germany discovery of how cells communicate, as related to diseases
Salam, Abdus 1979 physics Pakistan unification of electromagnetism and the weak interactions of subatomic particles
Samuelson, Paul 1970 economics U.S. work in scientific analysis of economic theory
Samuelsson, Bengt Ingemar 1982 physiology/
medicine Sweden biochemistry and physiology of prostaglandins
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Sanger, Frederick 1980 chemistry U.K. development of chemical and biological analyses of DNA structure
Saramago, José 1998 literature Portugal novelist
Sartre, Jean-Paul (declined) 1964 literature France philosopher, dramatist
Sato Eisaku (Satō Eisaku) 1974 peace Japan
Schally, Andrew Victor (Schally, Andrew V.) 1977 physiology/
medicine U.S. research on pituitary hormones
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Schrieffer, John Robert 1972 physics U.S. development of the theory of superconductivity
Schrock, Richard R. 2005 chemistry U.S. development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis
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Schultz, Theodore William 1979 economics U.S. analyses of economic processes in developing nations
Schwartz, Melvin 1988 physics U.S. research in subatomic particles
Schweitzer, Albert 1952 peace Alsace
Schwinger, Julian Seymour 1965 physics U.S. basic principles of quantum electrodynamics
Seaborg, Glenn T. 1951 chemistry U.S. discovery of and research on transuranium elements
Seferis, George 1963 literature Greece poet
Segrè, Emilio 1959 physics U.S. confirmation of the existence of the antiproton
Seifert, Jaroslav 1984 literature Czech. poet
Selten, Reinhard 1994 economics Germany development of game theory
Semyonov, Nikolay Nikolayevich 1956 chemistry U.S.S.R. work on the kinetics of chemical reactions
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medicine U.S. discovery of "split," or interrupted, genetic structure
Sharpe, William F. 1990 economics U.S. study of financial markets and investment decision making
Shaw, George Bernard 1925 literature Ireland dramatist
Sherrington, Sir Charles Scott 1932 physiology/ medicine U.K. discoveries regarding function of neurons
Shimomura, Osamu 2008 chemistry U.S. discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP
Shirakawa Hideki 2000 chemistry Japan discovery of plastics that conduct electricity  
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Sholokhov, Mikhail Aleksandrovich 1965 literature U.S.S.R. novelist
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Sienkiewicz, Henryk 1905 literature Poland novelist
Sillanpää, Frans Eemil 1939 literature Finland novelist
Simon, Claude 1985 literature France novelist
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Singer, Isaac Bashevis 1978 literature U.S. novelist
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medicine U.S. discovery and application of enzymes that fragment DNA
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Smithies, Oliver 2007 physiology/
medicine U.S. discovery of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells
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Snell, George Davis 1980 physiology/
medicine U.S. investigations of genetic control of the response of the immune system to foreign substances
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Söderblom, Nathan 1930 peace Sweden
Solow, Robert Merton (Solow, Robert M.) 1987 economics U.S. contributions to the theory of economic growth
Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr Isayevich 1970 literature U.S.S.R. novelist
Soyinka, Wole 1986 literature Nigeria playwright, poet
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medicine Germany organizer effect in embryo
Sperry, Roger Wolcott 1981 physiology/
medicine U.S. functions of the cerebral hemispheres
Spitteler, Carl 1919 literature Switzerland poet, novelist
Stanley, Wendell Meredith 1946 chemistry U.S. preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in pure form
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Staudinger, Hermann 1953 chemistry West Germany work on macromolecules
Stein, William H. 1972 chemistry U.S. fundamental contributions to enzyme chemistry
Steinbeck, John 1962 literature U.S. novelist
Steinberger, Jack 1988 physics U.S. research in subatomic particles
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Störmer, Horst L. 1998 physics U.S. discovery of fractional quantum Hall effect
Stresemann, Gustav 1926 peace Germany
Sully Prudhomme 1901 literature France poet
Sulston, John E. 2002 physiology/
medicine U.K. discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death (apoptosis)  
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Sutherland, Earl W., Jr. 1971 physiology/
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Suttner, Bertha, Freifrau von 1905 peace Austria- Hungary
Svedberg, Theodor H.E. 1926 chemistry Sweden work on disperse systems
Synge, R.L.M. 1952 chemistry U.K. development of partition chromatography
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medicine Hungary work on biological combustion
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medicine U.S. genetic regulation of chemical processes
Taube, Henry 1983 chemistry U.S. study of electron transfer reactions
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Tiselius, Arne 1948 chemistry Sweden researches in electrophoresis and adsorption analysis; serum proteins
Tobin, James 1981 economics U.S. portfolio selection theory of investment
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Tomonaga Shin'ichiro (Tomonaga Shin'ichirō) 1965 physics Japan basic principles of quantum electrodynamics
Tonegawa Susumu 1987 physiology/
medicine Japan study of genetic aspects of antibodies
Townes, Charles Hard 1964 physics U.S. work in quantum electronics leading to construction of instruments based on maser-laser principles
Trimble, David 1998 peace Northern Ireland
Tsien, Roger Y. 2008 chemistry U.S. discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP
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United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) 1965 peace (founded 1946)
United Nations Peacekeeping Forces 1988 peace
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Vickrey, William 1996 economics U.S. theory of incentives under conditions of asymmetric information
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Waksman, Selman Abraham 1952 physiology/ medicine U.S. discovery of streptomycin
Walcott, Derek 1992 literature St. Lucia poet
Wald, George 1967 physiology/ medicine U.S. discoveries about chemical and physiological visual processes in the eye
Walesa, Lech (Wałęsa, Lech) 1983 peace Poland
Walker, John E. 1997 chemistry U.K. explanation of the enzymatic conversion of adenosine triphosphate
Wallach, Otto 1910 chemistry Germany pioneer work in alicyclic combinations
Walton, Ernest Thomas Sinton 1951 physics Ireland work on transmutation of atomic nuclei by accelerated particles
Warburg, Otto 1931 physiology/ medicine Germany discovery of the nature and action of the respiratory enzyme
Warren, J. Robin 2005 physiology/ medicine Australia discovery of bacteria's role in peptic ulcer disease
Watson, James Dewey 1962 physiology/ medicine U.S. discoveries concerning the molecular structure of DNA
Weinberg, Steven 1979 physics U.S. unification of electromagnetism and the weak interactions of subatomic particles
Weller, Thomas H. 1954 physiology/ medicine U.S. cultivation of the poliomyelitis virus in tissue cultures
Werner, Alfred 1913 chemistry Switzerland work on the linkage of atoms in molecules
Whipple, George H. 1934 physiology/ medicine U.S. discoveries concerning liver treatment for anemia
White, Patrick 1973 literature Australia novelist
Wieland, Heinrich Otto 1927 chemistry Germany researches into the constitution of bile acids
Wien, Wilhelm 1911 physics Germany discoveries regarding laws governing heat radiation
Wieschaus, Eric F. 1995 physiology/ medicine U.S. identification of genes that control the body's early structural development
Wiesel, Elie 1986 peace U.S.
Wiesel, Torsten Nils 1981 physiology/ medicine Sweden processing of visual information by the brain
Wigner, Eugene Paul 1963 physics U.S. principles governing interaction of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Wilczek, Frank 2004 physics U.S. discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction
Wilkins, Maurice 1962 physiology/ medicine U.K. discoveries concerning the molecular structure of DNA
Wilkinson, Sir Geoffrey 1973 chemistry U.K. organometallic chemistry
Williams, Betty 1976 peace Northern Ireland
Williams, Jody 1997 peace U.S.
Willstätter, Richard 1915 chemistry Germany pioneer researches in plant pigments, especially chlorophyll
Wilson, C.T.R. 1927 physics U.K. method of making visible the paths of electrically charged particles
Wilson, Kenneth Geddes 1982 physics U.S. analysis of continuous phase transitions
Wilson, Robert Woodrow 1978 physics U.S. discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation, providing support for the big-bang theory
Wilson, Woodrow 1919 peace U.S.
Windaus, Adolf 1928 chemistry Germany constitution of sterols and their connection with vitamins
Wittig, Georg 1979 chemistry West Germany introduction of compounds of boron and phosphorus in the synthesis of organic substances
Woodward, R.B. (Woodward, Robert Burns) 1965 chemistry U.S. synthesis of sterols, chlorophyll, and other substances
Wüthrich, Kurt 2002 chemistry Switzerland development of techniques to identify and analyze proteins and other large molecules
Y
name year category country* achievement literary area
Yalow, Rosalyn S. 1977 physiology/ medicine U.S. development of radioimmunoassay
Yang, Chen Ning 1957 physics China discovery of violations of the principle of parity
Yeats, William Butler 1923 literature Ireland poet
Yukawa Hideki 1949 physics Japan prediction of the existence of mesons
Yunus, Muhammad 2006 peace Bangladesh
Z
name year category country* achievement literary area
Zeeman, Pieter 1902 physics The Netherlands investigation of the influence of magnetism on radiation
Zernike, Frits 1953 physics The Netherlands method of phase-contrast microscopy
Zewail, Ahmed H. 1999 chemistry Egypt/U.S. study of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy
Ziegler, Karl 1963 chemistry West Germany structure and synthesis of polymers in the field of plastics
Zinkernagel, Rolf M. 1996 physiology/ medicine Switzerland discovery of how the immune system recognizes virus-infected cells
Zsigmondy, Richard 1925 chemistry Austria elucidation of the heterogeneous nature of colloidal solutions
zur Hausen, Harald 2008 physiology/
medicine Germany discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer
*Nationality given is the citizenship of recipient at the time award was made. Prizes may be withheld or not awarded in years when no worthy recipient can be found or when the world situation (e.g., World Wars I and II) prevents the gathering of information needed to reach a decision.
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Universalium. 2010.

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