▪ Jewish text
      (Hebrew: “Seeds”), the first of the six major divisions, or orders (sedarim), of the Mishna (codification of Jewish oral laws), which was completed early in the 3rd century AD by Judah ha-Nasi. Zeraʿim contains 11 tractates (treatises), the first of which (Berakhot, “Blessings”) deals with public worship and private prayer. The other 10 tractates all deal with laws regarding agriculture and are called: Peʾa (“Corner”), Demai (“Dubiously Tithed Produce”), Kilayim (“Mixed Kinds”), Sheviʿit (“Seventh Year”), Terumot (“Heave Offerings”), Maʿaserot (“Tithes”), Maʿaser sheni (“Second Tithe”), Ḥalla (“Dough Offering”), ʿOrla (“Uncircumcision”—applied to restricted fruit), and Bikkurim (“Firstfruits”). The Palestinian Talmud (Talmud and Midrash) has Gemara (critical commentaries) on all 11 tractates of Zeraʿim, but the Babylonian Talmud has Gemara only on Berakhot.

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Universalium. 2010.

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