- Witte, Sergey Yulyevich, Graf
▪ prime minister of RussiaIntroduction(Count)born June 29 [June 17, old style], 1849, Tiflis, Georgia, Russian Empiredied March 13 [Feb. 28, O.S.], 1915, PetrogradRussian minister of finance (1892–1903) and first constitutional prime minister of the Russian Empire (1905–06), who sought to wed firm authoritarian rule to modernization along Western lines.Life.Witte's father, of Dutch ancestry, directed the agricultural department in the office of the governor general of the Caucasus. His mother came from a high-ranking family of the Russian nobility engaged in state service. Witte's childhood in the Caucasus was a happy one. Following his successful career as a student of mathematics at the Novorossiysky University (now Odessa State University) at Odessa, Witte thought of entering on an academic career. But he followed the advice of a family friend, the minister of communications, and entered the railway administration. It was the beginning of a career that brought Witte to the heart of imperial politics and finance. After a period in the chancellery of the governor general of Odessa and Bessarabia (1871–74), Witte studied railway administration in the Odessa Railway at the Odessa office of the Ministry of Communications. He led a disciplined, orderly life, imposed partly by family poverty and partly by an urge to succeed. By the time of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) he had already risen to a position in which he controlled all the traffic passing to the front along the lines of the Odessa Railway. At one critical point he devised a novel system of double-shift working to overcome delays on the line.Witte showed his freedom from bureaucratic prejudice by appointing men of all nationalities—Jews, Poles, Ukrainians—as his subordinates and by cultivating favourable press relations. His economic acumen was shown in his collection and use of railway statistics and in the implementation of an effective freight tariff whereby he lowered freight rates and increased revenue.In 1889 Witte was invited to establish a railway department in the Ministry of Finance. He advanced rapidly and became in quick succession minister of communications (February 1892) and minister of finance (August 1892). Far-reaching plans for the economic development of the Russian Empire formed the kernel of Witte's policy. He aimed at “removing the unfavourable conditions which hamper the economic development of the country and at kindling a healthy spirit of enterprise” (Witte's first budget to the Emperor, 1893). Using the full power of the state, Witte unfolded a vast range of activity: a remodelled State Bank made ready capital available to industry; Russian steamship companies and nautical and engineering schools were established; savings banks were encouraged; company law was reformed; and the ruble was made convertible. Witte was also instrumental in raising large loans from investors in France, Britain, Belgium, and Germany to finance Russian industrialization.He deployed his greatest energy in stimulating railway building, particularly the Trans-Siberian line (actually begun in 1891). He saw it not only as a means to bring urban progress to the countryside but also as an economic stimulus in itself, as a link between European and Asiatic Russia, and as a way of making Russia the chief intermediary between western Europe and the Far East. For almost a decade the “Witte system” enjoyed considerable success, but at the turn of the century international uncertainty (the South African [Boer] War, the Spanish–American War, and the Boxer Rebellion in China) reduced the flow of foreign loans to Russia, and strikes and peasant unrest in Russia revealed that the mass of the population would no longer tolerate the reduced living standards that Witte's policy entailed. Moreover, influential agricultural interests, always hostile to Witte's all-out support for industrialization, made their opposition manifest at court. His relationship with Emperor Nicholas II, who feared this dynamic man, was also unhappy. In August 1903 Witte was removed from the Ministry of Finance and appointed to the largely decorative position of chairman of the Committee of Ministers.He had to look on in impotence as the government blundered into war with Japan. But he was to render highly important services to the empire in 1905 and 1906. In July 1905 he was appointed chief Russian plenipotentiary to conduct peace negotiations with Japan. He obtained unexpectedly favourable terms for Russia, but his achievement did not make him any more popular.At a political level, Witte, though he detested constitutionalism in any form, used his influence to persuade the Tsar to issue the “October Manifesto” of 1905, which promised to grant a measure of representative government. No less important was Witte's role as prime minister in the new system of government, in organizing the repression of all the forces of disruption in the autumn and winter of 1905–06—e.g., the St. Petersburg Soviet, or workers' council, the troop mutinies in the Far East, strikes in South Russia, and peasant uprisings in the Baltic provinces.Witte was also instrumental in concluding arrangements in 1906 with a group of European bankers for a series of loans that restored Russian finances, which were in a state of virtual collapse through the effects of defeat in the Far East and the widespread revolts of 1905.This was Witte's last opportunity to serve the state. He was forced to resign the premiership in April 1906, having lost what little confidence the Tsar had in him. Witte never returned to office, and his efforts to influence policy were ineffectual. Thus, in the summer and winter of 1914–15 he vainly opposed Russian entry into World War I and was sympathetic to peace feelers put out by the German government through Witte's own German banker. He died embittered and dispirited, foreseeing disaster for the tsarist empire.Assessment.Witte's reputation was at first eclipsed through the collapse of tsarism, but he is now appreciated as a successor to Peter I the Great in the drive to modernize a backward empire and as a forerunner of the Communists in the policy of implementing an industrial revolution from above. The “Witte period” of 1892–1903 may well be compared to the period of the First Five-Year Plan. But Witte worked in an unsympathetic political context that was perhaps incompatible with industrialization and by which he was ultimately defeated.Lionel KochanAdditional ReadingTheodore von Laue, Sergei Witte and the Industrialization of Russia (1963), is the only study of Witte's career that is commensurate with the importance of the subject, ending with Witte's final fall from power in 1906 (includes a useful bibliography). The Memoirs of Count Witte, trans. and ed. by Abraham Yarmolinsky (1921), remains indispensable, though the emphasis is on Witte's career in 1905–06. The Memoirs in their Russian original were republished in one volume, ed. by A.L. Sidorov (1960).
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Russia — /rush euh/, n. 1. Also called Russian Empire. Russian, Rossiya. a former empire in E Europe and N and W Asia: overthrown by the Russian Revolution 1917. Cap.: St. Petersburg (1703 1917). 2. See Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. 3. See Russian… … Universalium
Russian Revolution of 1905 — Unsuccessful uprising in Russia against the tsarist regime. After several years of mounting discontent, a peaceful demonstration was crushed by Tsar Nicholas II s troops in the Bloody Sunday massacre. General strikes followed in St. Petersburg… … Universalium
Nicholas II — 1. (Gerard) died 1061, pope 1058 61. 2. 1868 1918, czar of Russia 1894 1917: executed 1918. * * * I Russian Nikolay Aleksandrovich born May 18, 1868, Tsarskoye Selo, near St. Petersburg, Russia died July 16/17, 1918, Yekaterinburg Tsar of Russia… … Universalium
count — count1 /kownt/, v.t. 1. to check over (the separate units or groups of a collection) one by one to determine the total number; add up; enumerate: He counted his tickets and found he had ten. 2. to reckon up; calculate; compute. 3. to list or name … Universalium